Books Publications

This section deals with information regarding books/publications related to GowdaSaraswat Brahmin community.

Title of Book SrimadBhagavatGeetaBhasha
Language/Script Konkani language- Nagari script
Author’s name IndrakantvasudeoShenoy
Publishers details Konkani Vidyapeeth, South Cherlai, Kochi- 682002
Year of publication 1981 (Ist edition)
Brief review (highlights only) ParampujaneeyaSrimadSudheendraTeerthaSwamiji has given his blessings and the introduction contains excellent information on Guruparampara, Aryan kings and their regimes, Janma-patrika of Lord Sri Krishna etc… well written in Konkani. The most important feature of the book is that all the Sanskrit slokas in 18 chapters of Geeta are translated in poetic Konkani-or in other words sloka-rupi Konkani. The language used is very lucid and the print is very bold which enables the reader to understand it easily. Probably the book is  out of print now (March 2018)

 

Title of Book VenkateshKalyan
Language/Script Konkani language- Nagari script
Author’s name Professor R. K. Rao- (M.A)
Publishers details Konkani Bhasha Institute, Kochi-25
Year of publication November 1988 (First Edition)
Brief review (highlights only) A handy book having 45 pages contains foreword  by the publishers mentioning the life and work of Sri Ramanujacharya, Sri Madhvacharya etc.; and mentions about Bhakti Movement in India. An introduction on Sri VenkateshKalyan is available which deals with complete aspects of Sri BalajiVenkatesh. The book is in poetic form having four chapters and each chapter is set to a well-known classical Raga like- Kamboji Raga, Mayamalavagowla Raga, Keerawani Raga and Shankarabharanam Raga. An excellent poetic work, worth singing on a daily basis but the book is not available for purchase

 

Title of Book Konkani Shabdakosh
Language/Script Konkani language- Nagari script
Author’s name ShripadRaghunath Desai
Publishers details ShrisitaramPrakashan, Pednem, Goa
Year of publication 1980
Brief review (highlights only) An excellent Konkani to Konkani dictionary in Nagari script, with a beautiful introduction to development of Konkani language. Published in three volumes, it contains more than 3000 Konkani words

 

Title of Book Sriramcharitmanas- Kavyarupan Konkani anuvadu
Language/Script Konkani language- Nagari script
Author’s name K. AnanthBhat
Publishers details Konkani BhashaPracharSabha, Kochi-682002
Year of publication 2004 (First Edition)
Brief review (highlights only) A voluminous book running into almost 500 pages is an excellent work in poetic form of sriRamcharitmanas of GoswamiTulsidas. H. H. SrimadSudhhendraTeerthaSwamiji has blessed the author for his herculean work. It is complete Sriramcharitmanas in lucid Konkani, sloka to sloka which will be a real challenge for future Konkani authors

 

Title of Book SampoornaShodasaSamskarangal
Language/Script Malayalam language and Malayalam script
Author’s name A.R. BalakrishnaPrabhu
Publishers details VaishnavRatne Publication, Karanakodam, Kochi-25
Year of publication January 2007 (First Edition)
Brief review (highlights only) The book is an excellent research based work on the important Sixteen Sacrements (Samskars) of GowdaSaraswat Brahmin community. The book is in Malayalam running into 300 pages and gives detailed description of all the sacraments, along with the logic behind them. The author made lot of efforts in penning a studied view on the subject matter by referring various authentic Hindu-Dharma Shastra authorities

 

“कला काव्य” कॊंकणी कविता पुस्तक. बरौपी पी. क्रिष्णकुमार, कॊच्ची

   

कला काव्य

कॊंकणी कविता पुस्तक.  बरौपी पी. क्रिष्णकुमार, कॊच्ची.  कॆरळ कॊंकणी अकाडमी, चॆर्ळाय, कॊच्ची प्रकाशक. अखिल भारतीय कॊंकणी परिषदॆचॆ ३१-वे मुंबयचॆ अधिवॆशनांत उजवाडपायलॊ.

पी. क्रिष्णकुमार, हांगॆलॊ प्रथम कविता संग्रह तं कलाकाव्य.  सान प्रायॆर कविता बरॊंचाक तान आसीली.  कॊच्चिनान्तु थाकुन उजवाडांवचॆ “कॊंकण जनता”,”स्पन्दन”, इत्यादि आनुकालिकांतु अपण्यालॆ काविता “कलाकान्त” म्हळॆलॆ नावान उजवाडायलॆली आसा. अपण्यालॆ समीपान्तु जांवचीच कायरीं कविता रुपान सरळ जावनु सांगूक क्रष्णकुमाराक सामर्थ्य आसा.

अस्या हांच्या कवितांचॆ कार्य सांगल्यार खंयचा एक झाडार नॆमान जावपी फुलां वरी ह्यॊ कविता. गांथून हाची एक माळ जांवचाक थॊडॊ वॆळ लागलॊ इतलॆंच.  जाल्यार एक व्यत्यास आसा. फुला झाडार कॆवल एक तराचीं फुलां जाताय. पुण ह्या हारांत तरातराचीं कवनफुलां अासाय. अशॆ तरॆन तरातराच्या फुलांचि माळ गांथुन दॆवळांत दीवनु तांतु सायूज्य पावंपी एक भक्ता तुमकां ह्या कवितांचॆ वाटॆन मॆळतली. जाल्यार कवीन तगॆल्या काव्यफुलांचॊ हार दवरला तॊ अमचॆ मुकार. असलॊ तागॆलॊ अपूर्व काव्यहार आमचॆ मुकार प्रस्तुत आसा म्हण्टना अमी हाचॊ भरपून आस्वाद घॆवुंयात. 

फाटल्या कितल्याच दशका्नी रचलॆल्यॊ २४ कविता हांतु आसाय म्हणिल्ल्यान हांच्यांनी कवीलॆं बा-ल्य  आनि भुरगॆपणूय आमका पळॊवंक मॆळता. जॆन्ना “किणिमाम” काणी सांगता, जॆन्ना “शाळा”  उुगदता, जॆन्ना दॆवळांत “आराट” यॆता, तॆन्ना आमकां बाल्य उलॊ मारता. हांतुल्यॊ थॊड्यॊ कविता – “संसार पाडवो”, “नीद”, “पै माम”, “फूल सॊदून”- वर्णना आनी विनॊदाच्यॊ  भावना जुळॊवन आमकां भुलयताय. 

कवीलॆ अनुभव उतरांनी चितारपी कविता म्हळ्यार – “गीम”, “पावस” आदी कविता. थॊड्या  कविता उपदॆशाचॊ. मार्गदर्शनाचॊ सूर आसता-दॆसाची सॆवा करुंया.  वॆगळ्या थॊड्या कवितांनी दॆवाची बक्ती सहज रूपान थळथळॆता. जाल्यार “सॊरंगॊ” म्हळ्ळॆल कवितॆंत कवीलि तत्वचिंताय प्रकट जाल्या.

ह्यॊ कविता चड करुन निर्मल आनी प्रसन्न भाव प्रकट करपी. उजू मूल्यांचॊ पुरस्कार करपी. हांसतु लाळित्य आनि माधुर्य उठून दिसता. अशॆं आसूनूय अप्रूप वॆळार कविल्या उतरांनी स्वल्प तीश्णताय यॆता जाल्यार ताचॊ कारणकार आयलॊ मनीशूसच. “फातर काळजांनॊ” म्हूण तिडक मारपी कविताच हाचॆं एक उदाहरण. “मानिषादा”, म्हूण एक उलॊ आदि कविल्या गळ्यांतुल्यान फुटलॊलॊय समान फाट भुयॆंचॆर म्हूण सांगुयात. जाल्यार कवील्या आत्म्यांत आशांती ना. ताचॊ निजाचॊ भाव शांतीचॊ.

श्रॆष्ठ कॊंकणी साहित्यकार श्री. शरतचन्द्र शॆणाय हाणीं हॆ कवितॆ पुस्तकाची प्रस्तावना बरॆयला. उंचार सांगीलॊ अभिप्राय हांगॆलॊच.

हॊ काव्यसंग्रह स्वर्गीय प्रॊ.आर.कॆ.रावु, प्रॊ.पी.जी.कम्मत, श्री. सुभाषचन्द्र प्रभु, श्री. वी.सदानंद पै मास्टर, श्री. पी.एन.शिवानंद शॆणै हांका उडगास करनु समर्पण कॆल्या.

                                             Details of the book

  1. Title:                                              KALAKAVYA
  2. Contents:                                      Konkani Poems
  3. Name of author:                          Kalakanth (P.Krishna Kumar)
  4. Publisher:                                     Kerala Konkani Academy, Kochi-2
  5. First Publication:                        6th January 2018
  6. No. of pages:                                38
  7. Price:                                             Rs.50/
  8. Contact address for enquiries: (1) Author: Tel:Mob.919497687985 Email:                                                                  pkrishnakumar02@gmail.com                                                                           (2)Gopinatha Kamath: Mob. 919446541731                                                                Email:gopinathakamathp@yahoo.co.in                                                             (3)Konkani Kendra, Gosripur                                                                                         Email:gosrichaitanya@gmail.com                                                                     (4) M/s. Prabhus’ Books, Near Ayurveda                                                                     College, Trivandrum.

    Social work in Ancient Hindu Literature – Book by Naveenchandran Bhat

    Social work in Ancient Hindu Literature – Book by Naveenchandran Bhat

    Social work in Ancient Hindu Literature- Book by Naveenchandran Bhat

    SOCIAL WORK IN ANCIENT
    HINDU LITERATURE
    BY
    DR. NAVEENCHANDRAN K. BHAT
    Bharatiya Shikshan Mandal
    Sheshadri Sadan, Tulsibag Road, Mahal, Nagpur
    Ph. : 0712-2721322 Email : bsmbharat1@gmail.com
    Publisher :
    Bhara􀀡ya Shikshan Mandal
    Sheshadri Sadan, Tulsibag Road,
    Mahal, Nagpur – 440 032.
    Phone : 0712-2721322
    Email : bsmbharat1@gmail.com
    Publica􀀡on Date :
    26/08/2018
    Raksha Bandhan
    Shravana Poornima, Yugabda 5120,
    Vikram Samvat 2075
    ISBN No. 978-81-924168-4-7
    Printed by :
    Sankalp Printers Pvt. Ltd.
    B-4/6, Bu􀀯bori Industrial Area,
    Bu􀀯bori, Nagpur.
    Price : < 200/-
    Contents
    Chapter Page No.
      
    03
    Publisher’s Note 4
    Foreword 6
    From Author’s Desk 9
    Acknowledgement 12
    List of Sanskrit Terms 14
    Chapter – I 15
    Introduc􀀯on : Ancient Literature &
    indigenous Social Work
    Chapter – II 35
    Philosophy of Professional Social Work
    Chapter – III 48
    Ancient Social Work Ideology and Its Prac􀀯ce
    Chapter – IV 87
    Social Responsibility of an Individual as
    member of the Society
    Chapter – V 132
    Role of the State and other Ins􀀯tu􀀯ons
    for Social Welfare
    Chapter – VI 166
    Ancient Concepts : Their Relevance Today
    Chapter – VII 175
    Bunch of thoughts on the essence of
    Ancient Social Work
    Bibliography 206
    Appendix 213
    There is a need for robust publica􀀯on wing in every
    ins􀀯tute that works in the field of educa􀀯on. One of the most
    important mandates of Bhara􀀯ya Shikshan Mandal is
    publica􀀯on of peer reviewed research material. Publica􀀯on
    ensures that ideas gain some kind of permanence. It also
    ensures that further diligent and profound research is made on
    the content published.
    Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray was a highly qualified chemist,
    educa􀀯onist, historian, industrialist and philanthropist from
    Bengal. He made deep study in the history of chemistry in Bharat
    and published original works. In 1902, he published the first
    volume of “A History of Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest Times
    to the Middle of Sixteenth Century”. The second volume was
    published in 1909. These works were a result of many years’ of
    search through ancient Sanskrit manuscripts. Similarly, Dr. M. G.
    Bokare (1926-2001), former Vice Chancellor of Nagpur
    University and Convener. Na􀀯onal Commi􀁉ee of Swadeshi
    Jagaran Manch wrote a book on “Hindu Economics”.
    BHARATIYA SHIKSHAN MANDAL is celebra􀀯ng
    “Poorna Mandal to Swarna Jayan􀀯” from 2018-2020 as it has
    completed 48 years in 2018, and will complete 50 years in 2020.
    In Bhara􀀯ya calendar 48 years is seen as “Poorna Mandal” and in
    contemporary 􀀯me study 50 years is celebrated as Swarna
    Jayan􀀯 (Golden Jubilee). The idea is to emphasis on Bhara􀀯ya
    values and yet remain contemporary. Hence the name “Poorna
    Mandal to Swarna Jayan􀀯” In this period, BHARATIYA
    SHIKSHAN MANDAL has decided to publish books with intent
    to document Hindu view of life in all the streams of knowledge.
    “Social Work in ancient Hindu Literature” is one such
    publica􀀯on. This book can also serve as a reference material to
    many who are doing their study in this field.
    Publisher’s Note
    04
    Bhara􀀯ya perspec􀀯ve to Social work has always been
    that of “selfless service”. Social work as a profession is a new
    dimension which Bharat has to adopt. “{ZË` ZyVZ {Ma nwamVZ”
    (Eternal yet innova􀀯ve) is the Bhara􀀯ya way of thinking. Hence,
    in prac􀀯ce we have already adopted social work as a profession
    and courses on social work have been in introduced in various
    universi􀀯es since few decades. But, lack of course material from
    Bhara􀀯ya point of view has forced the universi􀀯es to follow
    curricula based on alien theories and prac􀀯ces. This book fulfills
    the much needed demand of Bhara􀀯ya content on social work.
    BHARATIYA SHIKSHAN MANDAL shows its sincere
    gra􀀯tude to the author Dr. Naveen Chandra Bhat for bringing out
    beau􀀯fully in the books the Bhara􀀯ya perspec􀀯ve to social work.
    We are deeply thankful to Shri Milind Khot who has taken special
    efforts to print the book in an a􀁉rac􀀯ve form. Quality and
    perfec􀀯on are the hallmark of his work prac􀀯ces. Our special
    acknowledgements to Dr. Govind Hadap who has been
    instrumental in ge􀁏ng this book published by Bhara􀀯ya
    Shikshan Mandal and also wri􀀯ng the foreword. He is the
    Na􀀯onal Coordinator of Shaikshaik Prakosht (Syllabus Making
    cell) of BHARATIYA SHIKSHAN MANDAL. We are also very
    grateful to Adv. Govind Athavle, an octogenarian, labour ac􀀯vist,
    philanthropist and life long mentor of the author for facilita􀀯ng
    publica􀀯on of this book. His con􀀯nued follow up has encouraged
    us to keep the deadlines.
    We are confident that this book will successfully imprint
    and promulgate the Hindu view in social work!
    26/08/2018
    Raksha Bandhan
    Shravana Poornima, Yugabda 5120, Prakashan Vibhag
    Vikram Samvat 2075 Bhara􀀡ya Shikshan Mandal
    05
    The topic Social Work in Ancient Hindu Literature is not only
    important but also unique in the sense that the author a􀁉empts
    to analyse the relevance of concepts and principles enshrined in
    ancient Hindu literature in the context of present day subject
    ma􀁉er of Social Work. In common parlance the term social work
    has a different meaning in comparison to its meaning in
    University curriculum where it is recognized as a stream or
    faculty just like Sociology or Poli􀀯cal Science. In the present
    scenario, Social Work is considered as a profession having UG &
    PG level courses with specific knowledge-base, theories,
    principles, skills and methods for prac􀀯ce. Social Work being an
    interna􀀯onally taught subject ma􀁉er is claimed to be recently
    originated in Euro-Western countries and spread across rest of
    the world including India. As a corollary its knowledge-base is
    loaded with Euro-west centric views and models. Interes􀀯ngly
    lot of limita􀀯ons was observed when it is applied in prac􀀯ce in a
    socio-culturally different country like India. Naturally the
    ques􀀯on of indigenous Social Work or Indianisa􀀯on or
    Bhara􀀑yakaran of Social Work becomes prominent and
    developing indigenous knowledge-base with appropriate
    addi􀀯ons or amendments is the need of the 􀀯me.
    Ancient Hindu Literature is a treasure of valuable knowledge and
    there can be hardly any doubt that our ancient literature does
    not contain concepts or themes which will enrich current
    knowledge-base of Social Work educa􀀯on in our country. In our
    Hindu tradi􀀯on we pray for the happiness of all and for good
    health of all living beings (Sarvepi-sukhina-santu- savre-santuniramaya).
    Bhara􀀯ya or Hindu philosophy speaks of welfare of
    not only of mankind but also of all living beings (Sham-no-astu-
    Foreword
    06
    dwipade-sham-chatushpade). Our ethos has roots in our Vedas,
    Upanishads, Puranas etc which call upon every individual to
    strive for the be􀁉erment of society. Even though we may find
    people with different languages and different customs in our
    vast country, our greatest strength is our ‘unity in diversity’. All of
    us believe in the manifesta􀀯on of divinity in all animate and
    inanimate things. This fundamental a􀁏tude is our asset as this
    helps us to render service to others, look for the happiness of
    others first than self-happiness and show respect to all. Our
    scriptures proclaim that all our ac􀀯ons ought to be directed
    towards ul􀀯mate goal of societal good or social welfare. In this
    background, the eminent ques􀀯on that arises is why such
    enriching knowledge envisaged by ancient literature does not
    find a place in present day curriculum of Social Work.
    Probably one of the answers to the above ques􀀯on is that we do
    not have text books or reference books to highlight our Indian
    tradi􀀯ons or ethos. We miserably failed to include Social Work
    models prac􀀯ced by great personali􀀯es like Shri Nanaji
    Deshmukh who was instrumental in transforming the most
    backward area of Chitrakut in Madhya Pradesh. Lack of
    documenta􀀯on is a big shortcoming which we have to address
    ourselves. In this regard the present book on Social Work in
    ancient Hindu literature is a valuable work done by Dr
    Naveenchandran Bhat and his efforts must be appreciated well.
    He took pains to study and analyse the en􀀯re ancient literature
    from Social Work curriculum point of view. He has dealt with the
    subject ma􀁉er beau􀀯fully and elaborated ancient concepts and
    principles in such way that a common man as well as a University
    teacher of Social Work will find it equally interes􀀯ng and useful.
    He made lot of efforts to do jus􀀯ce to the theme in an effec􀀯ve
    style of wri􀀯ng in a lucid language. The book is divided into seven
    chapters which are logically arranged to help the reader to draw
    07
    a complete picture of relevance of ancient concepts for Social
    Work educa􀀯on in India.
    The book is unique in the sense that the author tries to explain
    both professional aspect of Social Work as well as the ancient
    outlook towards comprehensive be􀁉erment of society. Hardly
    any book is currently available with this important theme. This
    work can be considered as the best ini􀀯al step towards achieving
    the ul􀀯mate goal of indigenous or Indianisa􀀯on of Social Work.
    Samaj Karya ka Bhara􀀯yakaran should be our vision and mission
    for the benefit of students of Social Work in India. I feel that this
    book will be immensely useful to teachers and students of Social
    Work faculty and at the same 􀀯me for the general public at large
    as well. More over the work will be a guiding light to the policy
    makers of educa􀀯on in our country too. I wish to record my best
    wishes to him in all his future endeavors.
    Dr. G. N. Hadap
    Re􀀯red Principal and Akhil Bhara􀀯ya
    Shaishik Prakoshtha Pramukh
    Bhara􀀯ya Shikshan Mandal.
    26/08/2018
    Raksha Bandhan
    Shravana Poornima, Yugabda 5120,
    Vikram Samvat 2075
    08
    Social Work as a profession is of recent origin even
    though much of its subject content can be traced long back. The
    willingness to help others on which the whole superstructure of
    modern Social Work is built up, is very ancient. Ancient Hindu
    literature before Buddha period speaks of this aspect of “helping
    others” in clear terms and narrates the ways and means of
    helping others which are easy to prac􀀯ce. These ways and means
    of prac􀀯ce were enshrined in the day to day life of Hindu
    individual who believed in “Service unto others” as his prime
    duty. The concern about duty rather than one’s right, in the
    minds of all individuals, helped the ancient society to survive and
    grow for thousands of years.
    The individual was concerned about the society and the
    ancient society took care of the less privileged or marginalised
    through various ins􀀯tu􀀯ons, including the ins􀀯tu􀀯on of State or
    king. The ancient norms and customs were highly conducive to
    the welfare of all because of which the less privileged persons
    never felt neglected. The State or the king was held responsible
    for various Social Work ac􀀯vi􀀯es in which the individuals as
    members of the society par􀀯cipated and made their
    contribu􀀯ons willingly.
    The concepts like Dharm (Y_©) , Danam (XmZ_), Yajna (`k)
    Rina (F$U), A􀀯thipujaman (A{V{WnyOZ_²), Panch Maha Yajna (n§M
    _hm`k) etc. are significant and have relevance to Social Work.
    Even though the ancient Indian Social Work ac􀀯vi􀀯es originated
    from the concepts of ‘Punya’ and ‘Pap’ the Hindu Philosophy
    urged the people to rise above these concepts in rendering
    service unto others.
    The ancient State was similar like that of any Modern
    From Author’s Desk….
    09
    Welfare State, in its approach to Social Welfare. It was State’s
    responsibility to look a􀁔er the old, the sick, the orphan, the
    handicapped etc and State undertook developmental measures
    like construc􀀯on of roads, digging of well and ponds,
    construc􀀯on of public places and plan􀀯ng of trees etc.
    It is interes􀀯ng to note that some of the ancient Social
    Work ac􀀯vi􀀯es are s􀀯ll in prac􀀯ce with slight varia􀀯ons among
    Indian tribals even today. The so called civilised communi􀀯es can
    learn many useful Social Work tradi􀀯ons of the primi􀀯ve tribal
    communi􀀯es of India.
    Thus, lot of things can be observed in ancient Hindu
    literature which has relevance in the prac􀀯ce of modern Social
    Work. Even though the ancient literature is rich in valuable
    concepts and prac􀀯ces which are relevant to modern Social
    Work, it is sad to note that a study to explore them is yet to be
    undertaken. The present study is an a􀁉empt in this direc􀀯on.
    The researcher is not interested in claiming that, whatever is
    presented in this study is the complete or exhaus􀀯ve account of
    ancient Social Work tradi􀀯ons and that nothing more is
    available. The present study is first of its kind which can definitely
    play an important role in guiding the future researchers
    undertaking studies with similar themes.
    With the above views in mind, the author a􀁉empts to
    present this study in the following chapters.
    The first chapter is devoted for introduc􀀯on, for
    mo􀀯va􀀯on, data collec􀀯on method, a brief account of ancient
    literature, the libraries used, indigenous Social Work etc.
    The chapter II of the book deals with the meaning and
    concept of Modern Social Work, objec􀀯ves, principles and
    values, nature of Social Work as a profession and Methods of
    Social Work.
    10
    The chapter III is devoted for the discussion on ancient
    concepts like Dharm (Y_©) , Danam (XmZ_) and Yajna (`k) from
    Social Work point of view, philosophical bases of ancient social
    work, a few special features of ancient Social Work prac􀀯ce etc.
    The chapter IV deals with social responsibility of the
    individual as a member of the society as percived in ancient
    literature; bases of ancient social rela􀀯on; the role of individual,
    family and the society; the Samskaras, the specific social work
    ac􀀯vi􀀯es of the individual etc.
    The chapter V is meant for discussing the Role of the
    State in social welfare, the nature of ancient State, tax structure,
    State’s responsibility for social work ac􀀯vi􀀯es, patronage of
    educa􀀯on, role of other organisa􀀯ons towards social welfare
    etc.
    Chapter VI deals with relevance of ancient concepts in
    modern 􀀯mes from social work point of view.
    Chapter VII is 􀀯tled as Bunch of thoughts which is the
    essence of Ancient Social Work.
    The author feels happy and contented in presen􀀯ng this
    study to one and all who are interested in Social Work in Ancient
    India.
    Dr. Na 26/08/2018 veenchandran K. Bhat
    11
    Acknowledgment
    On the occasion of publishing this book I wish to
    acknowledge my hear􀁖elt thanks to all esteemed personali􀀯es
    who inspired and helped me in successfully accomplishing my
    cherished dream of presen􀀯ng the topic of Social Work and its
    ideological background in Ancient Hindu Literature in a book
    form to the readers.
    I humbly lower my head before almighty Paramatma
    and pray for His blessings without which I could not even think of
    undertaking this work. There is no subs􀀯tute to the blessings of
    Shri Hari-Guru and I firmly believe that they gave me enough
    strength to take this task to the logical end.
    I wish to record my sincere thanks to Adv. Shri Govindrao
    K. Athawale ex-MLC and Ex-Na􀀯onal Secretary of Bhara􀀯ya
    Mazdoor Sangh for his con􀀯nuous inspira􀀯on as well as
    guidance. In fact I took up this theme of Social Work in Ancient
    Hindu Literature because of him. He was the guiding force
    behind this work.
    My sincere thanks to Dr G. N. Hadap re􀀯red Principal and
    Prakoshtha Pramukh of Bhara􀀯ya Shikshan Mandal for wri􀀯ng
    Foreword to this book. He was instrumental in true sense of the
    term through his consistent encouragement to get this book
    published in the best possible form. Also I wish to record my
    heart-felt thanks to the publishers Bhara􀀯ya Shikshan Mandal,
    especially Shri Mukul Kanitkar, Organising Secretary and his
    team who encouraged me to carry on this task.
    I must also express my deep gra􀀯tude to Dr. S. G.
    Deogaonkar re􀀯red Professor, Anand Niketan College, Warora,
    Maharashtra for his guidance and crea􀀯ve sugges􀀯ons during
    compila􀀯on of data, arranging it in a systema􀀯c method and in
    12
    comple􀀯ng this work. I must thank him twice as he was my
    guide/supervisor for my PhD work and I could get the 􀀯tle as
    Acharya from RTM Nagpur University because of him only. Sir,
    thank you very much.
    I will fail in my duty as an individual if I do not record my
    thanks to my family members who encouraged me consistently
    and even tolerated the inconvenience that I might have caused
    to them unknowingly as I could not devote my 􀀯me to my family
    responsibili􀀯es. My special thanks to my wife Mrs Sheela N. Bhat
    who took lot of pains in assis􀀯ng me from day one 􀀯ll the logical
    end of publishing this work.
    Last but not the least I wish to thank all those who
    directly or indirectly helped me in cherishing my dream of
    ge􀁏ng a book published.
    Dr. Naveenchandran Bhat
    Associate Professor
    MSS Ins􀀯tute of Social Work,
    Nagpur.
    13
    Important Sanskrit Terms Transcribed
    Into Roman Script
    XmZ_ Danam
    `k Yajna
    F$U Rina
    {nV¥ F$U Pitri Rina
    n§M X{jU `k Panch Dakshina
    Yajna
    amOg Rajas
    nmn Pap
    d¡íd Xod Vaishva Deva
    {gbm|Mm Siloncha
    Aml_ Ashrama
    nwéfmW© Purusharitha
    H$m_ Kama
    F$½doX Rig Veda
    gm_ doX Sama Veda
    Cn{ZfX Upanishad
    Y_© Dharma
    n§M _hm `k Panch Maha
    Yajna
    Xod F$U Deva Rina
    F$fr F$U Rishi Rina
    gmpËdH$ Satvik
    Vm_g Tamas
    nwÊ` Punya
    {dYem{g Vighashasi
    J¥hñW Grihastha
    (Gruhastha)
    dU© Varna
    AW© Artha
    _moj Moksha
    `Owdo©X Yajur Veda
    AWd© doX Atharva Veda
    ñ_¥{V Smri􀀯 (Smru􀀯)
    _Zw Manu
    amO Raja
    _hm^maV Mahabharata
    g§ñH$ma Samskara
    Vn Tapa
    g_~wÕr Samabuddhi
    {ZîH$m_ H$_© Nishkama Karma
    ~«måhU Brahmana
    g{_{V Sami􀀯
    {dYV Vidhata
    `mkdëŠ` Yajnavalkya
    a§O Ranj
    am_m`U Ramayana
    d¥j XmZ_ Vruksha Danam
    àOmZwa§OZ Prajanuranjana
    g_X{e© Samadarshi
    pñWVàk S􀀯taprajna
    A{V{W nyOZ_ A􀀯thi Pujanam
    g^m Sabha
    nm¡a-OZnX Paura Janapada
    14
    Chapter I
    INTRODUCTION
    India is a country rich in its philosophy and tradi􀀯ons
    which survived and flourished for thousands of years, inspite of
    the frequent cultural and philosophical ouslaughts on it.
    Probably no where in the world, one can find “the concern for
    others” of highest order, which we find in Hindu philosophy by
    way of “seeing and worshipping God in all animate and
    inanimate things.”
    The concern for human beings and respect and dignity
    for all are not new, because they were inscribed long back in
    ancient Hindu literature which speaks volumes on its tradi􀀯on of
    individual good as part of the social good. In Vedas, the oldest
    literature on earth, we find ideals which spoke of well-being of
    birds and animals (e Zmo AñV² {ÛnXo, e MVþînXo F$JdoX && 7/54/1) and
    which urged every individual to take vow for the well-being of
    the man kind. (_Zwî`mUm§ {Z{Ynmo ^ydmg && AmnV² Y_© J¥ø_§Ì&&) The Atharva
    Veda, without leaving any room for doubt, clearly men􀀯ons
    about the prac􀀯ce of service to the mankind when it proclaimed
    “Let the physical difficul􀀯es and emo􀀯onal disturbances arisen
    out of service to the mankind be erased by the blessings of
    Saraswa􀀯, the Goddess of learning and knowledge”(`V² OZmZ²
    AZMaV: `mM_mZñ`…. gañd{V Vxm n¥UX²….7/57/1) .
    Ancient Hindu Seers envisaged the welfare of the
    individual, the family, the community and the society at large,
    through the beau􀀯ful principle of Dharma (Y_©) which denotes as
    that which preserves the society. “Hindu religion contained more
    than do good and be good” kind of concept like in other world
    religions, in its approach to societal good. And it is a wrong
    no􀀯on that Hindu religion advocated only the self-centred and
    selfish goal of Moksha, the final libera􀀯on. Of course, the
    15
    Moksha was the highest objec􀀯ve kept in front of the individual
    but its achievement was made possible, only through the
    fulfilment of one’s obliga􀀯ons and the service towards the
    family, the society and the God.
    The ancient texts men􀀯on prayers which envisaged
    peace and stability for the whole world (Y¥dm Úmo Y¥dm n¥{W{d… Yw«d {díd
    F$½doX 10/173/3 gh 6) and ordain, “let us make the whole Universe,
    excellent and noble (H¥$ÊdÝVmo {díd_m`© && F$½doX 9/63/5) which is the
    concern of the modern Social Work. And not only, that it
    remained only in prayers, but also the customs and norms of the
    society were such that every Hindu began his day with service to
    animals, birds and human beings. It was nothing short of the
    principle “think globaly act locally” in its approach in thinking
    and ac􀀯ng on the universal welfare.
    But, unfortunately, it is noted with regret that hardly any
    Social Work literature is available which peeps deep into the
    Social Work ideology and prac􀀯ces as enshrined in the ancient
    Hindu literature.
    The Study
    The present study is an effort in the direc􀀯on to explore
    the Social Work perspec􀀯ve as found in the ancient Hindu
    literature and hence is 􀀯tled as “Social Work and its ideological
    background in Ancient Hindu Literature – A Historical and
    Analy􀀯cal view”.
    The present study is an a􀁉empt to enumerate the
    ancient tradi􀀯ons of Social Work, to view the tradi􀀯ons from the
    Social Work angle, to analyze and interpret them logically and
    thereby to deduce the ideological background of the Social Work
    tradi􀀯ons.
    As it is very obvious, the concept of modern Social Work
    regarded as a profession can hardly be traced to ancient 􀀯mes
    and hence a broader out look of the concept has been adopted
    16
    for the purpose of the present study. Social Work is a self-less
    ac􀀯vity, intended for the welfare of others, undertaken with due
    respect and dignity of the individual as human being. At the
    same 􀀯me, the man in olden 􀀯mes used to live very close to
    Nature, he thought of the welfare of animals and birds and also
    of the Universe as a whole, which in present day context can be
    termed as “concern for animals and birds “Ecological concern”
    “Green Peace movement” etc.
    Mo􀀡va􀀡on Behind Study
    The author undertook the study out of his own interest
    and with the object of bringing out the Social Work content of
    the ancient Hindu literature which is alleged to be difficult to
    digest because of its Sanskrit background. Secondly, it is the
    belief of the author that there exists at least some ancient
    philosophical concepts which have relevance in the prac􀀯ce of
    modern Social Work. A third point that inspired was with regard
    to the talk of indigenous Social Work in India, for which a deep
    look into ancient works will be much beneficial and will generate
    insight. The author, as a student of Social Work was mo􀀯vated by
    the words of few Social Work authori􀀯es to undertake the
    present study, as given below :
    “Indian Social Work Educa􀀯on should par􀀯cularly study
    the Hindu, Jain and Buddhist concepts of man if they wish to
    relate the alien concept of Professional Social Work to Indian
    Philosophy and culture.” 1
    “The dearth of research of specific teaching material, of
    texts, systema􀀯cally illustra􀀯ng essen􀀯al Social Work values
    from Indian Philosophers, Seers or Social reformers, is a serious
    problem… Indian students could learn the basic values of
    Professional Social Work more easily if they could see them as
    different ways of saying some of things that have been taught by
    their own Philosophers, Saints, Social thinkers and Social
    reformers.” 2
    17
    “Indian literature specially the Upanishads and the epics
    abound in a rich body of knowledge out of which much Social
    Work knowledge, skills and methods can be carved out. But we
    may not care to have a look at it and want to dole out a diluted
    form of that knowledge packed in books on Social Work wri􀁉en
    in west.” 3
    The Objec􀀡ves
    The objec􀀯ves of the present study are as follows :-
    1) To study the ancient concept of Social Work and the ideas in
    India.
    2) To enumerate and study the ac􀀯vi􀀯es undertaken for the
    welfare of the society in ancient India.
    3) To study the social responsibility of an individual towards the
    society in a contemporary sense, as conceived in ancient
    literature.
    4) To iden􀀯fy the concept of Welfare State in the period under
    study.
    5) To find out concepts in ancient philosophy and to analyse
    their relevance in the present context.
    Ancient Time Span of the Study
    The term “ancient” has been defined as “old or in olden
    􀀯mes; of 􀀯mes long past; especially the 􀀯me before the end of
    the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D.” as per the Webster’s
    English Dic􀀯onary. Encyclopaedia Bri􀁉anica refers to “ancient”
    by dis􀀯nguishing ancient history from medieval and modern,
    generally as meaning before the fall of the Western Roman
    Empire.
    As far as the present study is concerned, the term ancient
    refers to the 􀀯me before Buddha period, which Is roughly before
    400 BC. The reason why pre-Buddhist era is emphasised upon, is
    that a lot of informa􀀯on is available on the Social Work ac􀀯vi􀀯es
    during Buddha period (like that in the “Jatakas” of Buddhism).
    18
    Many Indian authori􀀯es traced Social Work history from
    Buddha, in which the Chanakya’s “Artha-Shastra” which is a pre-
    Buddha Work, has also been included. But no literature in Social
    Work of the Social Work speaks tradi􀀯ons in India before this
    period. Hence the present study is based on the ancient Hindu
    literature before Buddha period.
    Thus, Hindu literature, dis􀀯nguished from Buddhist literature
    is the scope of the study which includes “the Vedas, the
    Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, the Upanishads, the Sutras, the
    Smri􀀡s and the epics Ramayan and Mahabharat.” The
    chronological order of these Works and their exact 􀀯mes are not
    debated upon as this is not the central theme of the present study
    but all these are accepted as Ancient Hindu Literary Works even
    though few of these works may have later addi􀀯ons, as late as a􀁔er
    Buddha period.
    Further, orientalists of Sanskrit Language, differ in their
    opinion about the exact number of “Slokas” or Verses or even
    chapters, containing in many old works, many of which are over
    lapping also. Irrespec􀀯ve of this, the author accepted the works
    and the transla􀀯ons of the works by non-controversial
    authori􀀯es on ancient Hindu literature, because the analysis is
    based on the literature as available to us today. The main object
    of the study is to explore the ancient Social Work ideology,
    touching all the above men􀀯oned works and hence the study is
    exploratory in nature. Even though, the present study is spread
    on a vast and wide treasure of literature, an effort has been
    undertaken to cover all the ancient works and to enumerate
    Social Work tradi􀀯ons there of.
    Brief Informa􀀡on About Ancient Indian Literature
    India has a vast and tradi􀀯onally con􀀯nuous ancient
    literature throws light on the socio-cultural- religious life of the
    people of the concerned 􀀯me. Except some literature like
    19
    Buddhist literature for example, most of the literary works are in
    Sanskrit language even though style and pa􀁉ern differed within
    the same language from 􀀯me to 􀀯me. As for the present study
    the main aim of which is to explore the contemporary Social
    Work ideology, the pre-Buddhist period literature is studied,
    with the excep􀀯on of accep􀀯ng even the later addi􀀯ons (a􀁔er
    the Buddha period) to the original ancient works.
    Ancient Indian literary history is usually divided into
    three main periods : the Samhita; the Brahmana; and the
    Upanishad periods. The universally accepted ancient literature
    includes the Vedas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, the
    Upanishads, the Sutras, the Smru􀀡s and finally the two great
    Epics. A brief introduc􀀯on to these works is essen􀀯al for the
    purpose of the study.
    The Vedas
    The Veda literature has been compiled into four
    “Samhitas” meaning collec􀀯ons namely 1) The Rig Veda Samhita
    2) The Atharva Veda Samhita 3) The Sama Veda Samhita and 4)
    The Yajur Veda Samhita. Samhitas are the Vedas and contain
    mantras or prayers but these prayers also bring out the
    community life of that 􀀯me.
    The Rig-Veda Samhita
    The Rig-Veda Smahita consists of 1. 20 Suktas (hymns)
    including elevan Valakhilya (addi􀀯onal) hymns. The whole
    collec􀀯on is divided into eight ashtakas (books). Each ashtaka is
    sub-divided into eight adhyayas (chapter) and each adhyaya is
    further subdivided into about thirty-three Vargas (sec􀀯ons)
    consis􀀯ng of about five Mantras each. Another division of the
    Samhita, is that the whole collec􀀯on is divided into 10 Mandalas
    with long and short Suktas, which vary in number from one
    Mandala to another, the Suktas being arranged of hymns
    according to the subject-ma􀁉er.
    20
    The Atharva Veda Samhita
    In contrast to the Rig Veda, the Atharva-Veda is
    essen􀀯ally a heterogenous collec􀀯on of Mantras, concern
    mostly with the every day life of the common man from the prenatal
    stage to the post-mortem. The Atharva Veda is know own
    by other connota􀀯ons also like “Atharvangirasah”, Bhrugu
    Vagirasah, Purchita-Veda, Kshatra-Veda, Brahma-Veda etc.
    Nine Shakhas (branches) of the Atharva-Veda are tradi􀀯onally
    known but the Samhitas of only two Shakhas the Sawaka and
    Pippalada have been preserved. The Samhita consists of 730
    Suktas divided into twenty Kandas (books). The main contents of
    the Atharva-Veda are I) Bhaishyyani-hymns to counteract
    diseases and freedom from evil spirits ii) Ayushyni-prayers for
    health and long life iii) Paush􀀡kani-prayers for happiness and
    prosperity iv) Strikarmani-about women v) Rajakarmani-about
    the king and the rest vi) Sammanasyani-about securing
    harmony in domes􀀯c, social and poli􀀯cal spheres.
    The Sama Veda Samhita
    This Samhita contains mantras or hymns to be chanted
    at the 􀀯me of various sacrifices of “Soma” by the udgatrir (the
    priest). It is a collec􀀯on divided into two main parts I)The
    Poorvarchika and ii) The U􀁆ararhika. The first part consists of
    585 single Verses of which the first 114 are addressed to Agni,
    the next 352 to Indra, and the last 119 to Soma. The second part
    consists, of 1225 verses grouped into 400 units addressed
    mostly to Soma.
    The Bhagavad Gita (x/22) glorifies the Sama-Veda as the
    excellent among Vedas.
    The Yajur-Veda Samhita
    The Yajur Veda contains hymns of ritualis􀀯c character,
    clearly indica􀀯ng the use of the Veda during rituals and
    sacrifices. The principal sacrifices include “Agnistoma,
    21
    Vajapeya, Rajasuya, Agnihotra, Pitrumedha, Sarvamedha etc.
    It is claimed that there are 86 or even 101 branches of Yajur Veda
    but the two most important branches are I) Shukla Yajur Veda
    and ii) Krishna Yajur Veda.
    The Brahmanas
    In the literary history of ancient India, the Brahmanas
    occupy a significant place as they throw light on the social life of
    the people of that 􀀯me. They represent the earliest a􀁉empts to
    interpret the Vedas and are the guidelines for the whole
    community life. There are several Brahmanas, but the more
    important ones are I) The Aiteraya and the Kausitaki belonging
    to Rig Veda ii) The Tai􀁈 riya and Satapatha belonging Yajur-
    Veda iii) The Jaiminiya and Tandya belonging to the Sama-veda
    and the Gopatha belonging to the Atharva-Veda.
    The Aranyakas
    Actually, the Aranyakas are not universally regarded as
    independent texts as they are conceptually a kind of
    con􀀯nua􀀯on of the Brahmanas. The Aranyakas are so called
    because they were restricted to Aranyas or forests. The
    important Aranyakas are I) Aitareya Aranyaka ii) Kausitaki iii)
    Sankhayana iv) Tai􀁈riya v) Bruhadaranayaka etc.
    The Upanishads
    The Upanishads are important as they are the works
    containing the philosophy of Vedic life. They are the significant
    sources of spiritualism of ancient India and can be called as
    trea􀀯se of Indian philosophy. The Muk􀀡kopanishad gives a list
    of 188 Upanishads which can be classified under different
    Vedas. The most important ones and those which are u􀀯lised for
    the present study are as under :-
    I) Rig-Veda
    1) Aitareya 2) Kausitai 3) Mudgala 4) Nirvana
    ii) Yajur Veda
    22
    1) Isavasya 2) Bruhadaranyaka 3) Muk􀀯ka 4) Tai􀁏reeya
    5) Narayana 6) Brahma 7) Kaivalya
    iii) Sama Veda
    1) Kena 2) Chandogya 3) Aruni 4) Vayrasuchika
    iv) Atharva Veda
    1) Prashna 2) Mundaka 3) Mandukya 4) Mahanarayana
    5) Surya
    The Sutras
    Apart from the earlier men􀀯oned Vedic literature, there
    exist ancillary Vedic Literature called Vedangas. Further, these
    Vedangas are divided into six broad categories, the purpose of
    which is to systema􀀯cally organise and throw light on the
    “Knowledge” of the Vedic literature. The most important
    Vedanga for our purpose is the “Kalpa” containing socioreligious
    prac􀀯se and rituals of the 􀀯me under study. This
    Vedanga is also termed as kalpa-sutra which again in sub-divided
    into three major sutras namely I) the Srauta-Sutra ii) the
    Gruhya Sutra iii) the Dharma-Sutra, respec􀀯vely refering to the
    religious, the domes􀀯c and the social aspects of the life of the
    people. These Sutras primarily seek to regulate and codify the
    prac􀀯ces which were already in vogue but at the same 􀀯me,
    introduce modifica􀀯ons in accordance with the 􀀯me.
    The major Srautra-Sutras are the Baudhayana, the
    Bharadvaja, the Apastamba, the Satyashadha-Hiranyakeshin,
    the Vaikhanasa, the Vaikhanasa, the Manava, the Varaha, the
    Kaltaka, the Katyayana, the Sankhayana, the Jaimaniya, the
    Gobhila etc.
    The Gruhya Sutra deal with the Gruhya (house hold) rites
    and the important Gruhya Sutras are the Sankhayana, the
    Kausitaka, the Asvalayana, the Saunaka, the Bharaviya, the
    Sakalya, the Vaikhanasa, the Ahnivesya, the Manava, the Varaha,
    the Jaimaniya etc. The Srautas and Sutras belong to various
    23
    schools of families have affilica􀀯on to the Vedas and their
    tradi􀀯on under respec􀀯ve vedas can be traced. A broad
    classifica􀀯on of the subject ma􀁉er of the Dharma Sutras can be
    done under three main heads I) the achara (conduct) ii) the
    Vyavahara (dealings of du􀀯es, including king’s duty) iii) the
    prayaschi􀁉a (expia􀀯on).
    The Smru􀀡s
    The Vedas are termed as “Sru􀀡” which never change but
    depending on the 􀀯me, the social ac􀀯vi􀀯es have to change to
    accomodate the changes in social rela􀀯on and the changing
    aspira􀀯ons and a􀁏tude. To lay down the code of conduct for
    each and every member of the society in rela􀀯on to other and to
    the society as whole, Smru􀀯s were evolved by the ancient
    Indians. The well known Smru􀀡es are Manu Smru􀀡,
    Yajnavalkya Smru􀀡 and Devala Smru􀀡.
    The Epics
    The two great epics which influence the Hindu Psyche
    and behaviour are the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The
    Ramayana is the story of God Rama the king of Ayodhya while
    the Mahabharata glorify the life of God Krishna and the conflit
    between the Pandavas and the Kauravas respec􀀯ng Dharma
    and Adharma respec􀀯vely. The teaching of God the Bhagvad
    Gita is a part of the Mahabharatha epic which has over one lakh
    stangas. The epic Ramayana is divided into seven kandas namely
    1) Bala Kanda 2) Ayadhya Kanda 3) Aranya Kanda 4) Kishkinda
    Kanda 5) Sundara Kanda 6) Yudha Kanda 7) U􀁆ara Kanda.
    The epic Mahabharata has been divided into various
    Parvas namely 1) Adi Parva 2) Sabha Parva 3) Vana Parva 4)
    Virat Parva 5) Udyoga Parva 6) Bhishma Parva 7) Drona Parva
    8) Karna Parva 9) Shalya Parva 10) Sowp􀀯ka Parva 11) Stree
    Parva 12) Shan􀀯 Parva 13) Anushastan Parva 14)
    Ashwamedhika Parva 15) Ashramavasika Parva 16) Mausala
    24
    Parva 17) Mahaprasthanika Parva 18) Swargarohana Parva.
    The Bhagavad Gita is divided into eighteen chapters.
    The Method or Data Collec􀀡on and Interpreta􀀡on
    The sources of data are basically the old Sanskrit texts,
    translated by established authori􀀯es and publishing houses in
    languages English, Hindi, Marathi and Malayalam. The author
    have fairly good knowledge of Sanskrit language but s􀀯ll
    personal interpreta􀀯on and assigning of meaning of the Sanskrit
    texts were avoided with a view to minimize subjec􀀯vity and only
    the meaning and interpreta􀀯ons by known authori􀀯es were
    considered as bases. Ambiguous terms and verses in Sanskrit,
    having more than one single meaning are avoided in the study.
    As the number works are voluminous, the author first
    undertook the task of studying books with ancient themes
    relevant to social work by reputed authori􀀯es. Then, the
    transla􀀯ons of original texts accepted universally, were
    researched upon to ascertain the correct meaning of the original
    verses. And hence the present study can be termed as based on
    original texts because for all the points men􀀯oned in the study,
    the relevant Sanskrit verses are quoted and the meaning of
    terms accepted for the study was based only on the original
    verses. Further, the author approched few known personali􀀯es
    of Indian Philosophy, Sanskrit, Orientology etc. to confirm the
    meaning and interpreta􀀯on for the correct use of the terms and
    concepts.
    Libraries U􀀡lised
    “Use of library is important because all research
    inevitably involves the use of the books…. This applies to studies
    based upon original data gathered in a field study as well as to
    those based en􀀯rely upon documentary sources.” 1
    As the research method is based mainly on library work,
    the following libraries were extensively used for the collec􀀯on of
    25
    data and other necessary documentary informa􀀯on.
    1) Nagpur University Library, Nagpur.
    2) Matru Sewa Sangh Ins􀀯tute of Social Work Library, Nagpur.
    3) Tata Ins􀀯tute of Social Sciences Library, Bombay.
    4) Hindu Dharma Sanskru􀀯 Mandir Library, Nagpur.
    5) The Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute Library, Thane.
    6) The Sukrateendra Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute Library, Kochi.
    8) The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute Library, Pune
    The research is based mainly on the data available in the
    libraries and hence can be termed as “Content Analysis”
    method. Komidar notes “Content Analysis studies represent yet
    another type of research which can be based en􀀯rely on
    materials available in library collec􀀯on.”1
    Original Texts Refered
    For the present study, the following original texts are
    referred for authen􀀯c meaning and for numbering the Sanskrit
    slokas and verses.
    Rig Veda – a) By – V. S. Satwalekar, Swadhya Mandal, Paradi,
    Satara, 1945
    b) By – H. H. Wilson, Vol. 1 to Vol. VI Ashtekar and
    Sons Poona 1925.
    Yajur Veda – By – Kashinath Shastri, Anandashram Sanskrit
    Granthwali, Pune
    Sama Veda – By – Dayanand Sansthan, New Delhi 1968.
    Atharva Veda – By – S. D. Satwalekar, Swadhaya Mandal, Paradi
    Satara 1925.
    Upanishads a) By Swami Gambhirananda, Advaita Ashrama,
    Publica􀀯on Department, Calcu􀁉a 1985.
    b) By Gita Press, Gorakhpur 1985.
    Brahmanas a) Ananda Sharma Sanskrit Granthawali, Pune
    b) Tara Publica􀀯ons, Varanasi.
    26
    c) Chowkhanba Publica􀀯ons, Varanasi.
    Gruhya Sutras and Dharma Sutras :- Anandashram Sanskrit
    Granthawali, Pune.
    Mahabharat a) Cri􀀯cal edi􀀯ons, Published by Bhandarkar
    Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute, Pune.
    b) Gita Press, Gorakhpur.
    The Ramayana a) By S. D. Satwalekar, Swadhaya Mandal, Satara
    b) Gita Press, Gorakhpur.
    The Kau􀀯lya’s Arthashastra – a) By N. N. Law, Longman’s Green
    anc Company, Culcu􀁉a, 1914.
    The Manu Smru􀀯 – a) By J. H. Dave, Bhara􀀯ya Vidya Series,
    bharateya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay 1972.
    b) By Surendra Kumar, Arsh Sahitya Prachar
    Trust, New Delhi 1986.
    The Bagavad Gita – a) Gita Press, Gorakhpur 1987.
    b) The Sanskrit Educa􀀯on Society, Madras
    1985.
    For the purpose of ascertaining non-ambigous meaning
    for most of the original Sanskrit tex ts “Histor y of
    Dharmashastra” by P. V. Kane, Bhandarkar Oriental Research
    Ins􀀯tute, Pune has been referred as authen􀀯c work.
    Indigenous Social Work:(Indianisa􀀯on of Social Work
    Educa􀀯on):-
    The debate on indigenous Social Work is going on in many
    countries and academicians are ready to review and re-assess
    theories and principles due to the fact that successful prac􀀯ce of
    Social Work is possible only if the socio-cultural background of
    the clients or the people is taken into account. Universally
    accepted principles of Social Work help us to understand the
    intricacies of human suffering but s􀀯ll West-Euro centric
    knowledge may not be sufficient enough to deal with human
    sufferings in other countries.
    27
    Meaning of Indigenous Social Work:
    Social Work has a universally recognized knowledge base and
    specified methods of prac􀀯ce. However when we take into
    account socio-cultural background of a society or country, and
    then apply knowledge and techniques for effec􀀯veness and
    efficiency, we may call it as indigenous Social Work. In other
    words, in India we can term it as Indianisa􀀯on of Social Work.
    Indianisa􀀡on of Social Work:
    First we must understand that there is a vast difference in the
    meaning of the term Social Work in common parlance and its
    meaning from professional point of view. Social Work as a
    profession is a subject ma􀁉er like any other branch of
    knowledge. One has to undergo a specific course like Bachelor of
    Social Work or Master of Social Work to learn theories and
    principles involved. Hope this gives an idea that to do Social
    Work, one has to be a trainedSocial Worker by acquiring certain
    skills and a􀁏tude. So here we are discussing about Social Work
    term as a profession and not in common parlance.
    Now, profession of Social Work is universal in the sense that the
    theories and principles have universal applicability just like any
    other branch of science say Physics or Chemistry. But unlike
    Physics, we deal with human beings here individually or in group
    or in community under Social Work profession. So the sociocultural
    background of the individuals or the community cannot
    be neglected and hence prac􀀯ce of Social Work ought to have an
    orienta􀀯on about socio-cultural background. Even though the
    principles will remain the same universally but a good Social
    Worker will give weightage to socio-cultural background too. So
    when we fine tune the principles [without compromising its core
    value] to best suit the needs of the people or society, it is termed
    as indigenous Social Work. In India we call it as Indianisa􀀯on (or
    Bhara􀀯yakaran) of Social Work.
    28
    Situa􀀡on other countries:
    If we look at the historical development of profession of Social
    Work, we can find that it got evolved in West and European
    countries and its origin is not more than two centuries old.
    Hence the available knowledge is mostly West or Euro centric.
    That does not rule out that there was no social ac􀀯vi􀀯es for the
    well-being of people in the societywhich are culturally rich
    countries like India or Japan. As of now many countries like
    China, Japan, Australia etc. are moving towards indigenous
    Social Work as per their needs, away from Euro/West centric
    Social Work. In short such countries are adop􀀯ng Social Work to
    suit their socio-cultural background.
    Fundamental changes in theories and principles:
    It is but natural to raise the doubt that Social Work theories and
    principles will differ from country to country. Not necessarily.
    Social Work deals with human beings. And basically human
    beings are same irrespec􀀯ve of the country or region they
    belong to. Whatever theories and principles we have as of now,
    are useful in allevia􀀯ng the misery of human beings and that is
    the reason Social Work as a profession came into prominence
    throughout the world. So there is no ques􀀯on of totally
    discarding the exis􀀯ng theories and principles terming them as
    Euro/West centric. Rather the theories and principles will get
    fine-tuned with addi􀀯ons and modifica􀀯ons to ensure
    effec􀀯veness with regard to a country or region. Enrichment of
    the knowledge-base of Social Work is the ul􀀯mate goal in such
    process which in turn will enhance effec􀀯veness of Social Work
    Prac􀀯ce. Advancement of any knowledge or branch of science is
    for the benefit of whole humanity.
    Achieving the goal of Indianisa􀀡on of Social Work:
    This is the fundamental issue. It will be a process and there is no
    short cut to it. When we term it as a process, it means that it has
    29
    to make a beginning and then con􀀯nue in the same direc􀀯on 􀀯ll
    the highest goal is achieved. We must commit ourselves for this
    vision and make efforts to develop a good knowledge-base. For
    this purpose we must explore ancient Indian knowledge and
    compile terms and concepts, relate them to present day theories
    and principles of Social Work. Further we have to adopt these
    ancient concepts to enrich present knowledge-base and thereby
    move towards India-centric rather than Euro/West centric
    subject ma􀁉er. Exploring ancient Indian knowledge is essen􀀯al
    because it s􀀯ll has a hold on vast majority of people in India.
    Old wine in new bo􀁆le!
    Not at all. First we have to understand that the bo􀁉le will be new
    or there will be a new look. Moreover inside the bo􀁉le also you
    will find a new flavor. The wine will not be the same as the
    west/Euro centric knowledge-base of Social Work will have to
    make way for India-centric one. So there will be Indian flavor
    inside the bo􀁉le and the flavor will get stronger and stronger –
    more of Indian flavor- as the 􀀯me passes.
    Views on Process of Indianisa􀀡on of Social Work:-
    There may be as many views as possible. To my mind, radical and
    sudden changes or modifica􀀯ons will lead to confusion. Simply
    because sudden change will adversely affect both teachers and
    students due to various reasons; for example lack of enough
    literature or books on indigenous Social Work.
    The available-best methodology should be to move towards the
    goal in phases or stages. Depending on the difficulty or comfort
    involved, I would like to visualize three stages or levels. First one,
    the ini􀀯al stage where the difficulty will be theleast. In this level
    we can replace Euro-centric examples, case studies etc. which
    are used for explaining the theories and principles with those
    from our own country or our experiences. Like in teaching
    Community Organisa􀀯on we can use examples of contribu􀀯on
    30
    by people like Anna Hazare or VinobaBhave and similarly we can
    introduce and do analysis of events like KumbhaMela which is a
    mega community event taking place smoothly with the
    voluntary involvement of people. Nowhere in the world you will
    find example like KumbhaMela.
    Second level will be having li􀁉le more difficulty than the previous
    one. Here we have to work towards supplemen􀀡ng /suppor􀀡ng
    exis􀀯ng theories and principles of Social Work with ideas and
    concepts from our Indian culture or tradi􀀯on. This will help us for
    successful prac􀀯ce of Social Work in Indian context, with
    emphasis on the socio-cultural background or belief system of
    Indian clients or society in general.
    The third and the final stage will be to evolve an Indian model of
    Social Work educa􀀯on and prac􀀯ce where learners will be able
    to learn similari􀀯es and differences of Euro-centric Social Work
    and indigenous Indian Social Work. All the above three levels are
    not exclusive like water 􀀯ght compartments in the sense that we
    can work on all the three levels simultaneously too. The bo􀁉om
    line is that the transi􀀯on must be a smooth and consistent one,
    otherwise there will be chaos.
    Three stages with examples:-
    In the first stage we have to enrich current knowledge-base with
    our experiences and examples in Indian context. For example
    instead of teaching the subject Community Work/Organisa􀀯on
    purely on the basis of a foreign model, we can include
    experiments /work done by Anna Hazare in Ralegan Siddhi or
    NanajiDeshmukh in Chitrakut or Amte family from highly
    backward tribal district of Gadchiroli. Similarly Dr.Abhay Bhang
    of Gadchiroli and his team has been doing excellent work – very
    cost effec􀀯ve—Health Care of rural and tribal community.
    For the second stage, we can incorporate Indian values or
    concepts in addi􀀯on to exis􀀯ng West-Euro centric ones. As an
    31
    example, when we discuss about essen􀀯al a􀁉ributes or quali􀀯es
    of a Social Work Prac􀀯􀀯oner, we can incorporate teachings from
    Upanishads or Buddhist literature. InBhagavat Gita we find
    verses like “ yasmanno–dvijate-loka- lokanno-dvijate-chayah”
    meaning one who does not get bored by the people/society and
    the people are not bored by him/her He/she likes to be amongst
    the people and people do not dislike him/her.This is essen􀀯al for
    a Social Work Prac􀀯􀀯oner as his/her work is basically with the
    people and not an arm chair work like an accountant. Further
    G i t a s a y s “ Tu l y a – n i n d a – s t u 􀀡 r – m o u n i … . . a n i k e t a –
    sthirama􀀡r…”meaning one who remains stable in the face of
    apprecia􀀯on and cri􀀯cismswith calmness. This again is a good
    quality expected of a Social Worker as he/she should not be
    swayed by rewards or no-rewards. But as of now these quali􀀯es
    are not men􀀯oned in the Social Work text books. Such things can
    be incorporated easily as these are in addi􀀯on to whatever is
    taught today and there will be no controversy.
    For the third stage let us take an example of an important
    principle of Social Work. Principle of Self-determina􀀯on
    essen􀀯ally means that the client must be allowed/encouraged to
    decide about the final course of ac􀀯on for his/her own benefit
    and the Social Worker must leave it at that phase. In Indian
    situa􀀯on most of the clients will come back to the Social worker
    with a request to decide on behalf o􀁔hem in their best of
    interest. In turn the responsibility of the Social worker increases
    and he/she must make efforts to understand the desperateness
    of the clients also. They are really not able to make a decision
    which may be a􀁉ributed to level educa􀀯on in our country or
    some other factors. The social worker can shun his/her
    responsibility by saying – “No. It is for you to decide yourself and I
    will not advice you further”. This approach may not help the
    client, rather he/she may feel dejected and may not pursue
    further. Gita gives us insight in this respect. At the end in Gita,
    32
    Krishna tells Arjuna to cri􀀯cally analyse whole knowledge and
    decide for yourself what should be done(Yathechasi- tathakuru).
    But Arjunasays “ I have clarity in my mind now as I have
    lost all wrong a􀁏tudes…. I will do without any hesita􀀯on
    whatever you say”( Nashto- moha- smri􀀙r- labda….karishyevachanam-
    tava). Here we must understand that we are not
    compromising with the principle of self-determina􀀯on but
    enlarging or enriching it.
    Difficul􀀡es visualized at this moment:-
    First and foremost is very limited number of books or nonavailability
    of readymade indigenous literature. It has to be
    evolved and developed which may require some period of 􀀯me.
    Second we may have to create a mechanism to orient the
    teachers first which will require consistent efforts for one to two
    years. We may have to ini􀀯ate discussions and debate on various
    aspects Indianisa􀀯on of Social Work at various levels. This can
    lead to the crea􀀯on of uniform understanding and can lead to
    the forma􀀯on of uniform syllabus in various Universi􀀯es in India.
    The third difficulty is about ensuring the support of all Govt.
    departments and bodies dealing with Higher Educa􀀯on without
    which the whole exercise will remain only on paper.
    Sugges􀀡ons for early implementa􀀡on:-
    a) Forma􀀯on of Social Work Council of India just like Medical
    Council of India which will develop a road-map in this regard.
    b) Forma􀀯on of high power commi􀁉ees for curriculum
    development and implementa􀀯on on a 􀀯me bound manner.
    c) Organising Seminars, Workshops etc. for all the stake holders
    of Social Work at college and University levels.
    d) Crea􀀯on of devoted websites, blogs etc. for speedy
    communica􀀯on of views.
    e) Ensuring involvement of experts, academicians from the
    areas of ancient literature and philosophy.
    33
    References :
    1) Khinduka S. K. : “Meaning of Social Work” “Social Work in
    India” (edited by S. K. Khinduka) Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd.
    Allahabad, 1965 – page 27/18.
    2) Yasas F. A. : “Gandhian Values and Professional Social Work
    Values” “Social Work in India” (edited by Khinduka S. K.)
    Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd., Allahabad 1965, Page 76.
    3) Banerjee G. R. : “Paper on Social Work-An Indian
    Perspec􀀯ve” Tata Ins􀀯tute of Social Sciences, Bombay. Page
    23.
    4) Wilkinson T. S. and Bhandarkar P. L. : “Methodology and
    techniques of Social Research” Himalaya Publishing House,
    Bombay 1986. Page 65.
    5) Based on the Version of Shri. R. N. Dandekar on Ancient
    Indian Literature, B. O. R. I., Pune.
    6) Komidar S. J. : “Use of the Library” “Methods in Social
    Research” (by Goode W. J. and Ha􀁉 P. K.) Interna􀀯onal
    students edi􀀯on, Mc Grow Hill, Tokyo, 1952. Page 103.
    7) Komidar S. J. : Ibid Page 104.
      
    34
    Chapter II
    PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL WORK
    Introduc􀀡on
    The dis􀀯nguishing characteris􀀯c of Social Work lies not
    in its social science know-how or even in its skills or in
    interpersonal rela􀀯ons, but in its concern for those in need of
    help… the deprived, the underprivileged, the unadjusted and
    the handicapped.1 The basic concern of Social Work is without
    ques􀀯on the welfare of its clientele and it has developed a
    responsible ethic which gives direc􀀯on to its use of the
    knowledge it acquires.2
    In fact Social Work seeks to enhance the social
    func􀀯oning of individuals, singly and in groups, by ac􀀯vi􀀯es
    focused upon their social rela􀀯onships which cons􀀯tute the
    intera􀀯on between man and his environment.
    Quo􀀯ng Younghusband, Phil Lee writes. “The Social
    Worker is concerned with remedying certain deficiencies which
    may exist in rela􀀯on between the individual and his environment
    and for this purpose is concerned with the total individual in
    rela􀀯on to the whole of his environment, in so far as this is
    relevant to righ􀀯ng such deficiencies.”3
    Beulah R. Compton sums up by saying “it is possible to
    define Social Work as the profession that delivers the personal
    social services devised by social welfare programmes and guided
    by Social Policy to the consumer of such services.”4
    Brief Historical Development of Social Work
    To trace the historical development of Social Work, its
    origin can be found in the Charity Movement in England.
    Woodroofe notes “Although the ma􀁉ers with which it is
    concerned are old, Social Work as a profession is very young. Its
    beginnings are to be found within the Charity Organiza􀀯on
    35
    Movement which developed in England during the 1860’s as one
    answer to the ques􀀯on of how to tackle poverty in the midst of
    Victorian plenty.”5
    In the period of the founding and growth of the charity
    organiza􀀯on movement, a new organiza􀀯on with some what
    similar purposes the American Red Cross-came into being.6 A
    large number of charity organisa􀀯ons both in England in
    America, demanded trained and skilled workers to man them,
    which was a major turning point for Social Work, giving rise to
    Social Work Educa􀀯on Ins􀀯tu􀀯ons.
    The interven􀀯on by the State became more prominent
    and the “charity” concept gave way to the concept of “Social
    Welfare”. It was in twenteeth century, “the economic deluge of
    the 1930’s not only brought a new deal for Social Work, in the
    sense that for the first 􀀯me, it (Social Work) became a recognised
    and respected func􀀯on of Government in U.S.A.”7
    Indian Scenario
    Tracing the historical development of Social Work in
    India, Billimoria writes” we see the germs of voluntry Social
    Work in the a􀁉empts made by primi􀀯ve tribes to preserve their
    homogeneity and protect the weak in the face of a common
    danger.” 8
    “The spirit of doing good to one’s fellow beings and
    in􀀯􀀯a􀀯ng or taking part in ac􀀯vi􀀯es for the welfare and common
    good of all seems to have been a special characteris􀀯c of Indians
    in ancient 􀀯mes”.9 The amount of efforts undertaken for the
    welfare of the society can be easily enumerated from the old
    literary works like kau􀀯lya’s “Arthshastra” and the “Jatakas” of
    Buddha period and from the inscrip􀀯ons of the king Ashoka and
    king Krishna Devaraya of South India.
    “The Muslims who formed an important element of the
    popula􀀯on from the thirteenth or fourteenth century onwards
    36
    were inspired by the same spirit of social service par􀀯cularly in
    the fields of religion and educa􀀯on.”10 During Bri􀀯sh regime
    Social Work in India, crossed major milestones in the sense that
    during this period, ins􀀯tu􀀯ons and great personali􀀯es came
    forward to work for the Societal Welfare.
    The contribu􀀯ons made by personali􀀯es like Raja Ram
    Mohan Roy, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Mahatma Jyo􀀯ba Phule,
    Pandita Ramabai, Swami Vivekanand and later on by Gopala
    Krishana Gokhale, Lokamanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Vinoba
    Bhave etc. had far reaching effect on the Indian society. During
    the same period, ins􀀯tu􀀯ons like Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj,
    Ramakrishna Mu􀁉, Theosophical Society, Servants of India
    Society etc. made their own impact in serving the society.
    “The first school of Social Work was set up in Bombay in
    1936, which produced Social Workers with professional
    training.”11 The other places like Delhi, Indore, Madras etc.
    followed Bombay in the establishment of School of Social Work
    in India.
    A􀁔er Independence, declaring itself as Welfare State,
    Indian Government took up welfare measures through Social
    Policy and programmes. The establishment of Central Social
    Welfare Board gave a boost to the voluntary welfare agencies
    working in the field of Social Work. At present both
    Governmental and non Governmental organis􀀯ons are striving
    for the be􀁉erment of life of less privileged and the deprived,
    with the help of trained Social Workers.
    Defini􀀡ons of Social Work
    B. R. Compton records a number of defini􀀯ons of Social
    Work as given by various authori􀀯es.12
    a) Social Work is a process through which we use the
    understanding of individual in society in the rendering of
    certain social service supported by the community and
    37
    applied for by members of it— Gartland. (1940).
    b) Social work is a helping ac􀀯vity directed to problems, which
    affect economic and social well-being and a liason ac􀀯vity
    concerned with maximizing resources, for well-being and
    facilita􀀯ng their use— United Na􀀯ons Commission 1959.
    c) The central target of technical Social Work prac􀀯ce is
    matching something in person and situa􀀯on that is
    intervening by whatever methods and means necessary to
    help people, be in situa􀀯ons where their capabili􀀯es are
    insufficiently matched with the demands of the situa􀀯on to
    “Make a go of it — William Gordon, 1969.
    d) Social Work is the professional ac􀀯vity of helping the
    individuals, groups or communi􀀯es to enhance or restore
    their capacity for social func􀀯oning and to create societal
    condi􀀯ons favourable to their goals —Na􀀯onal Associa􀀯on
    of Social Works U. S. A. 1970.
    Khinduka S. K. men􀀯ons defini􀀯ons given by some more
    authori􀀯es on the subject.13
    a) Social Work is a form of professional service, based upon
    scien􀀯fic knowledge and skill in human rela􀀯ons, which
    assists individuals, alone or in groups to obtain social and
    personal sa􀀯sfac􀀯on and independence. It is usually
    performed by a social agency of a related organisa􀀯on.—
    Friedlander 1955.
    b) Social Work is a welfare ac􀀯vity based on humantarian
    philosphy, scien􀀯fic knowledge and technical skills for
    helping individuals or groups of community to live a rich and
    full life—Indian conference of Social Work, 1957.
    c) Social Work comprises of the en􀀯re body of public and
    voluntary welfare ac􀀯vi􀀯es that seek to assure every ci􀀯zen a
    desirable minimum standard of living, freedom and
    security— Radhakamal Mukerjee, 1954.
    38
    Social Work is the art of bringing various resources to
    bear on individual, groups and community needs by the
    applica􀀯on of a scien􀀯fic method of helping people to help
    themselves.14
    Nature and Scope of Social Work
    Further, khinduka brings out the nature and scope of
    Social Work through six per􀀯nent points which are self-
    explanatory. 15
    1) Social Work is a helping ac􀀯vity.
    2) It has both public and private auspices.
    3) It has a knowledge base.
    4) It has its own methods of service.
    5) It draws its inspira􀀯on from humanitaranism.
    6) It has a problem solving func􀀯on and seeks to help
    people meet their genuine needs.
    Philosophy of Modern Social Work
    Regarding philosophy of modern Social Work, Khinduka
    writes “Social work is rooted in humanitarianism. It is scien􀀯fic
    humansim. It is based on certain values which when organised
    into a logically consistent system are designated as the
    Philosophy of Social Work”.16
    P. T. Thomas differenciates Philosophy of Social Work and
    between philosophy of Social Workers. According to him, Social
    Work Philosophy is based on a set of theore􀀯cal propor􀀯on
    while the Social Workers Philosophy takes form on the mental
    a􀁉unement or atmosphere gathered and cul􀀯vated by the
    intending Social Worker as a result of feelings and experience.17
    P. T. Thomas writes further in the rigid professional
    approach, we have a set of ideas call it philosophy if you like
    which has as its springboard a complex of beliefs such as (1)
    democracy is the natural right of man and is hence an a􀁉ainment
    to be aimed at (2) individual behaviour is mo􀀯vated by
    39
    subconcious factors that are both discoverable and controllable
    through the appropriate insights and skills (3) all social
    problems are ul􀀯mately personal maladgusments to
    environment and therefore… (4) Social Work must concern itself
    with the problem of the individual’s adjustments to given
    situa􀀯ons at given 􀀯mes. This I believe is more or less the broad
    outline of the philosophy of professional Social Work. 18
    P. T. Thomas con􀀯nues “In contemporary Indian
    background, the philosophy of Social Work as understood in the
    case discussing professional circles has li􀁉le significance. What
    our situa􀀯on demands is a philosophy based on collec􀀯ve
    responsibility for social welfare. When this is accepted : it ceases
    to be a philosophy of Social Work; it will be a philosophy of
    welfare which is very ancient indeed.19
    Friedlander notes “The prac􀀯ce of Social Work is based
    upon a generic philosophical concept. This concept is that the
    individual human being is the primary concern of a democra􀀯c
    society, inside of which individuals are inter-dependant and
    socially responsible to one another and to the society”.20
    Basic Principles of Social Work
    Walter A. Friendlander is an authority on modern Social
    Work, who is recognised universally as later authors quote him in
    their works. He men􀀯ons “Generic” Principles concerned with
    the three primary types of Social Work, namely Social Case
    Work, Social Group Work and Community Organisa􀀯on, which
    are quoted here in his own words.21
    (1) Convic􀀯on of the inherent worth, the integrity and the
    dignity of the individual is the first principle.
    (2) The second generic principle is the convic􀀯on that the
    individual who is in economic, personal or social need has
    the right to determine himself what his needs are and how
    they should be met.
    40
    (3) A third concept is that of decisive importance for Social Work
    in a democra􀀯c society is the firm belief in equal opportunity
    for all limited only by the indivisual’s innate capaci􀀯es.
    (4) A fourth value common to all methods of Social Work is the
    concvic􀀯on that man’s individual rights to self-respect,
    dignity, self determina􀀯on and equal opportuni􀀯es are
    connected with his social responsibili􀀯es toward himself, his
    family and his society.
    Purpose of Social Work
    To understand the concept of Social Work, it becomes
    necessary to study its purpose.
    “On the one hand, the purpose of Social Work is to
    strengthen the individual and on the other to provide for such
    arrangements in society which would provide maximum
    opportuni􀀯es to the individual to realize all that is best in him”.22
    The Report of the Working Party on Social Workers in the
    Local Authority Health and Welfare Services, England 1957
    brings out the purpose of Social Work as “The purpose of Social
    Work is to help individuals or families with various problems and
    to overcome or lessen these so that they may achieve a be􀁉er
    personal family or social adjustment.23
    Pincus and Minahan note “Social work is concerned with
    the interac􀀯on between people and their social environment
    which affect the ability of people to accomplish their life tasks,
    alleviate distress and realise their aspira􀀯ons and values.
    The purpose of Social Work therefore is to (1) enhance
    the problem solving and coping capaci􀀯es of people. (2) link
    people with systems that provide them with resources, services
    and opportuni􀀯es. (3) Promote the effec􀀯ve and human
    opera􀀯on of these systems and (4) Contribute to the
    development and improvement of social policy”.24
    “The goal of Social Work is to reconcile the well-being of
    the individuals with the welfare of society in which the live”.25
    41
    Social Work Values
    Pincus and Minahan note the values of Social work. “The
    primary values of Social Work might be stated as follows (1)
    Society has an obliga􀀯on to ensure that people have access to
    the resources, services and opportuni􀀯es they need to meet
    various life tasks, alleviate distress and realise their aspira􀀯ons
    and values. (2) In providing social resources, the dignity and
    individuality of people should be respected.
    Muriel W. P. presents the highly abstract values of Social
    Work in a schema􀀯c form.27
    Importance of the individual –> Interdependence of all
    individuals at all 􀀯mes.
    Condidera􀀯on for and acceptance of differances–> Social
    u􀀯liza􀀯on of and provision for variability within flexible
    expecta􀀯ons.
    Self determina􀀯on. Right to select own lifestyle –>
    Considera􀀯on for self determining needs and desires of others
    Self helf –> Obliga􀀯on to assist others in developing or
    recovering this capacity; non-blaming acceptance when selfhelp
    is not possible .
    Common needs of man –> Recogni􀀯on of similari􀀯es and
    diferences.
    Acceptance of every person –> No condoning of behaviour
    which hurts others.
    Right to equal par􀀯cipa􀀯on –> Gran􀀯ng par􀀯cipa􀀯on to others.
    Right to protec􀀯on of body and intellect –> Obliga􀀯on not to
    injure or deprive others.
    Freedom –> Limit.
    Change – progress – growth –> Preserva􀀯on of the effec􀀯ve
    stability, security, social direc􀀯on through accepted norms
    Validated knowledge –> Intui􀀯ve specula􀀯on; in sight.
    42
    Social Work As a Profession
    In India, unlike in the Western countries which gave birth
    to the concept of Social Work, much needs to be done to create a
    concrete public opinion to regard Social Work as a profession.
    Even though, the schools of Social Work and the Social Work
    educators go on hammering the public mind in India, to accept
    Social Work as profession, people at large do not seem to
    consider it so, specially like the profession of medicine or law.
    Lawyers and doctors get easily recognised as professionals but
    when a Social Worker terms himself as a professional by which
    he earns his liveihood also, people can not digest the idea of
    reward or payment of money for Social Work. For many Indians,
    Social Work s􀀯ll remains as selfless ac􀀯vity and not job which is
    why the big ques􀀯on is always asked “Is Social Work a
    profession?”
    By discussing the meaning and concept of the term
    “profession” S. K. Khindnka, draws six major characteris􀀯cs of
    profession,28 namely
    1) A special body of knowledge
    2) A system of impar􀀯ng training
    3) Special ability of the professionals in their area of opera􀀯on.
    4) Professional organisa􀀯on.
    5) Professional ethics
    6) Social recogni􀀯on.
    With discussing the above points in length, Khinduka
    concludes. “To our first ques􀀯on, then, namely is Social Work a
    profession in India our answer can only be an unqualified “Yes”.
    True it is new as profession and its pres􀀯ge among the profession
    is as high as of law and medicine, nevertheless as the above
    discussion shows it is impossible to deny it the status of a
    profession”.29
    D. Paul Choudhary writes “Social Work is not merely a
    43
    leisure 􀀯me ac􀀯vity now. It has developed into a full- pledged
    profession with definite knowledge, techniques and skills.
    Which are acquired by a social workers”.30
    Even in the Countries of its origin Social Work is yet to get
    full recogni􀀯on as profession. Woodroofe notes. For despite the
    fact that it is acquiring its own body of theory, methods, ethical
    code and organisa􀀯on, Social Work in the United States is s􀀯ll
    not fully recognised as one of the professions. Although it has
    travelled far since the days in 1915, when it was deemed as the
    mediator who summoned the expert, Social Work in the United
    States has s􀀯ll not been able to gain complete professional
    acceptance.31
    The Process of Social Work Prac􀀡ce
    Beulah R. Compton writes about the process of Social
    Work prac􀀯ce which is as follows.31
    “The dynamics of all that goes on between the client
    system and the worker is encompassed by the phrase Social
    Work Process, meaning the whole series of ac􀀯ons, changes, or
    func􀀯ons that go on between the client and the worker in the
    course of their being together.
    1) Problem or issue defini􀀯on.
    2) Goal se􀁏ng and assessment
    3) Contrac􀀯ng
    4) Ac􀀯on towards change and
    5) Evalua􀀯on
    Social Work Methods
    Social work as a profession has evolved its own methods
    through which the welfare of the individual, groups and the
    society has been aimed at. The three primary methods are (1)
    Social Case Work (2) Social Group Work and (3) Community
    Organisa􀀯on, while the secondary methods are (1) Social
    welfare Administra􀀯on (2) Social Ac􀀯on and (3) Social Work
    research.
    44
    The areas termed as the fields of Social Work include (a)
    Child welfare (b) Youth welfare (c) Family welfare (d) Labour
    welfare (e) Tribal welfare (f) Correc􀀯onal work (g) Medical and
    psychiatric Social Work etc.
    Thus the Social Work as we understand today has its
    origin in the concept of charity. Its basic concerns are the welfare
    of individual, the group and the society. The values of Social work
    are based upon democra􀀯c principles and humanitariansm.
    Presently, at least in India, Social Work is yet to get social
    acceptance as a profession because in the common parlance,
    Social Work is termed as a self-less ac􀀯vity under taken for the
    welfare of others.
    References :
    1) GORE M. S. : “The Scope of Social Work Prac􀀯ce”, “Social
    Work Educa􀀯on and Social Work Prac􀀯ce in India” (edited
    by Nair T. K.) Associa􀀯on of Madras, 1981 page 9.
    2) EMMET, DOROTHY : “Ethics and the Social Worker”, “Social
    Work and Social Values” (Complied by Younghusband E.),
    Georage Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, 1967. page 16.
    3) LEE PHIL : “Some Contemporary and Perennial Problems of
    Rela􀀯ng Theory to Prac􀀯ce in Social Work”, “Theory and
    Prac􀀯ce in Social Work” (edited by Balley R. and Lee Phil).
    Basil Blackwell Publisher Ltd. England. 1982. Page 10.
    4) COMPTON B. R. : “Introduc􀀯on Social Welfare and Social
    Work” The Dorsey Press, Illinois., U.S.A. 1980. Page 107.
    5) WOODROOFE K. : “From Charity to Social Work” University
    of Toronto Press, Toronto 1974. Page 3.
    6) WOODROOFE K. : Ibid. Page 27.
    7) WOODROOFE K. : Ibid. Page 77.
    8) STROUP H. H. : “Social Work – An Introduc􀀯on to the Field”
    Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 1965. Page
    41.
    45
    9) WOODROOFE K. : Op. Cit Page 176.
    10) BILLIMORIA, G. R. : “Voluntary Social work”, “Social Work in
    India” (edited by Wadia A.R.) Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd
    Bombay 1961. Page 60.
    11) MAJUMDAR R. C. : “Social Work in Ancient and Medieval
    India”, “Social Work in India” (edited by Wadia, A. R.) Allied
    publishers Pvt. Ltd. Bombay, 1961. Page 17.
    12) MAJUMDAR R. C. : Ibid page 23.
    13) CHAUDHARY, D. PAUL : “Introduc􀀯on to Social Work”. Atma
    Ram and Sons, Delhi 1976. page 3.
    14) COMPTON B. R. : Op cit page 108.
    15) KHINDUKA S. K. : “Meaning of Social Work”, “Social Work in
    India” (edited by Khinduka S. K.) Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd.
    Allahabad, 1965. Page 9 to 11.
    16) STROUP H. H. : Op Cit page 2.
    17) KHINDUKA S. K. : Op cit page 11.
    18) KHINDNKA S. K. : Ibid Page 23.
    19) THOMAS P. T. : “Reffec􀀯ons on the Philosophy of Social
    Work” “Social Work in India” (edited by Khinduka S.K.),
    Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd. Allabad, 1965. Page 67.
    20) THOMAS P. T. : Ibid page 68.
    21) THOMAS P. T. : Ibid page 70.
    22) FRIEDLANDER W.A. : Op Cit page 284.
    23) FRIEDLANDER W.A. : Ibid page 1 to 7.
    24) JALF. B. : “Social Welfare Under Indian Condi􀀯ons” “Social
    Work in India” (edited by Khinduka S.K.) Kitab Mahal Pvt.
    Ltd. Allahabad, 1965. page 316.
    25) EMMET D. : Op cit page 7.
    26) PINCUS A & MINAHAN A. : “A Model for Social Work
    Prac􀀯ce” “Integra􀀯ng Social Work Methods” (edited by
    Specht, H and Vickering A), George Allen and Unwin,
    London, 1977. Page 78.
    46
    27) FRIEDLANDER W.A. : Op cit page 8.
    28) RANADE S. N. : “Trends in Social Work” “Social Work in
    India” (edited by Khinduka S. K.) Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd.
    Allahabad, 1965 page 316.
    29) PINCUS A AND MINAHAN A : Op cit page 92
    30) MURIEL W. P. : “The Teaching of Values and Ethics in Social
    Work Educa􀀯on” (as quoted by Khinduka S.K.) in “Social
    Work in India” Kitab Mahal Pvt. Ltd., Allahabad, 1965. page
    25.
    31) KHINDUNKA S. K. : Op Cit page 37.
    32) KHINDUNKA S. K. : Ibid, page 55.
    33) Choudhary D. P. : Op cit. page 11.
    34) WOODROOFE K. : Op Cit page 223.
    35) COMPTON B.R. : Op Cit page 115 to 117.
      
    47
    Chapter III
    ANCIENT SOCIAL WORKITS
    IDEOLOGY AND PRATICE
    “A sprit of service or of rendering help to fellow human
    being on which the superstructure of Modern Social Work rests,
    was well known in India from very ancient 􀀯mes”.1 Ancient
    Hindu literature speaks volumes on the aspect of helping others
    and rendering services to the needy as one’s Dharma or
    obligatory duty. The structure and the lores of the society were
    such that the Social Work a􀁏tude as well as its prac􀀯ce were
    beau􀀯fully integrated with the individual’s aim of life or purpose
    of his existence on the earth. For him helping others, was a
    service unto God as he saw God in animate and inanimate things
    and it was easy for him to ‘feel’ the pain of other because he saw
    self in all living creatures. These principles existed not merely in
    philosophical level but Hindu texts envisaged easy and prac􀀯cal
    ways and means to adopt them in day to day life.
    Prof. Wadia narrates the principle of divinity of man and
    its relevance in social work in his forceful language. Wadia says
    “The divine in man is o􀁔en smothered but never totally
    annihilated. This is the truth which Social Workers in every land
    have discovered. Howard found that divinity in criminals,
    Elizabeth Fry in the insane, Josephine Butler in the pros􀀯tute,
    Florene Nigh􀀯ngale in the wounded and the suffering, Kagwa in
    the leper, Ramabai in the oppressed women and Gandhiji in the
    untouchables”.2
    Ancient Hindu literature is rich in a number of excellent
    concepts which have relevance in the prac􀀯ce of modern Social
    Work. These invaluable concepts need to be analysed and
    interpreted logically to bring out their significance and
    relevance. The following paras are devoted for this purpose.
    48
    The Concept of Danam
    It is a well known fact that the origin of the present day
    concept of Social Work can be traced to the charity movement
    especially by Christain Missionaries. It had contributed
    significantly in the prac􀀯ce of Social Work and gave broader
    philosophical base to it. Prof. Wadia notes “Charity is a virtue
    which has flourished on the soil of religion.”3
    The Charity – Defined
    The Webster’s New world dic􀀯onary gives the meaning
    of charity as “the love of God for man or of man for his fellow
    man; an act of goodwill; benevolence; kindness in judging
    others; a voluntary giving of money etc. to those in need, welfare
    ins􀀯tu􀀯on, organisa􀀯on etc”.
    Charity is the act of giving something to a needy out of
    love for him in the name of God, as the needy person can not
    acquire it of his own. The religious teaching, specially the
    Chris􀀯an theology expects every one to undertake charity,
    voluntarily as an act of good will, according to his capacity and
    will. And hence the “Charity” concept is different from that of
    “Social Welfare” which is a ma􀁉er of social duty. Even though the
    charity is obligatory, the par􀀯cular occassions of performing it
    are le􀁔 to our choice. No one has a moral right to our generosity
    or benifiecence but under Social Welfare ie welfare by State, one
    claims what one is en􀀯tled to as a special category and what
    some one has a duty to provide for Charity is the will and wish of
    the give but welfare is a right. 4
    Meaning of Danam
    Ancient Hindu literature, men􀀯ons the concept of
    Danam which is more than equivalant to that of charity in its
    meaning and wider in its prac􀀯ce.
    The English meaning of Danam is giving, gran􀀯ng,
    teaching, liberality, giving away as charity, munifience etc”. But
    exact meaning of the term can be known from its actual prac􀀯ce
    49
    and from the significance a􀁉ached to it in the ancient works. In
    Rigveda, the meaning of Danam is men􀀯oned as “Distribu􀀯on”
    as the root da (Xm)means distribu􀀯on.5
    In Bagavat Gita, God Shrikrishna explains the importance
    of Danam by equa􀀯ng it to “yajna (Group ac􀀯vity for collec􀀯ve
    good) veda (doX) (learning of scriptures) and tap Vn (medita􀀯ng
    for salva􀀯on).
    Further Danam is equal to Shradha (lmÕ) (obla􀀯on to
    forefathers) as it is demeed to free the man from his “Pitra Rina
    (Debt to ancestors) ({nV¥ä` lmÕmXmZoZ Z¥U_ä`MZoZ && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© –
    292/10)
    Classifica􀀡on of Danam
    The Danam ac􀀯vity has been classified into three groups
    in Bhagavat Gita while Five groups of classifica􀀯on are
    men􀀯oned in Mahabharat. The three men􀀯oned in Gita are
    Satvik, Rajas and Tamas. (gmpËdH$, amOg, Vm_g) When one
    performs Danam considering it as his obligatory duty with in the
    parameters of Xoe (Place) H$mb (Time) and nmÌ (the needy) not as a
    reward for an earlier favour is termed as “gmpËdH$ XmZ_”. The three
    parameters and the a􀁏tude as obligatory duty carries much
    importance in its out look and prac􀀯ce. “gmpËdH$ XmZ_” should be
    􀀯mely and should be with base to the place. Say for example a
    “XmZ_” of cloth which is not usually worn in a par􀀯cular region, if
    given to a person, can never be a “gmpËdH$” one, Similarly, the
    need of the needy must be understood by the giver before the
    needy asks for it. This is what is meant by the parameter “Patra”.
    In short “gmpËdH$ XmZ_” is one which is performed as an obligatory
    duty before the needy begging for it and given appropriately
    with regard to place and 􀀯me. ( XmVì`{_{V `ÔmZ Xr`Vo AZwnH$m[aUo & Xoeo
    H$mbo M nmÌo M VXXmZ gmpËdH$ ñ_¥V_² 17/201).
    The seconed one “amOg XmZ_” is one which is performed
    50
    with an inten􀀯on of ge􀁏ng in return something, say nwÊ` with
    much unwillingness. The act of giving takes place but the
    inten􀀯on and the mental frame work at the 􀀯me of giving is not
    at the heighest level of nobility. (`ÝVw àË`wH$mamW© \$b_w{Ôí` dm nwZ: &
    Xr`Vo M n[apËH$ï> VÔmZ§ amOg§ ñ_¥V_² && 17/21)
    The third one is Vm_g XmZ_ which is carried out with least
    respect to the needy, without caring to the parameters of 􀀯me
    and place. This one is last in order of importance and even
    though it is much disgraceful, “Vm_g²” type is also considered to
    be one among XmZ_ (AXoeH$mbo `XXmZ_nmVmo-`ü Xr`Vo & AgH¥$VVàdkmV
    CÎm_g_wXmhV_ && 17/22).
    Classifica􀀡on in Mahabharat
    Mahabharat classifies the XmZ_ ac􀀯vity into five,
    depending on the inten􀀯on behind them. The first one is
    Dharma Danam (Y_© XmZ_) which is selfless, without expec􀀯ng
    anything in return; not even nwÊ` and undertaken as a obligatory
    duty. Second one is termed as AW© XmZ_ in which the glorifica􀀯on
    or praise of the giver is expected from the receiver. The inten􀀯on
    behind third one is to avoid curse or which is undertaken out of
    fear and is termed as ^` XmZ_. The fourth one is H$m_Zm XmZ_
    which is undertaken only for the near and dear or only known
    friends and rela􀀯ves with a view to material gain or favour in
    return. The last one is X`m XmZ_ which is because of the Pity or
    Sympathy towards the receiver who gets what the giver wants to
    give at his will and wish. (Y_m©V² AWm©V² ^`mV H$m_mV H$méÊ`m{X{V ^maV &
    XmZ§ n§M{dY§ ko` H$maUo`¡{Z©~moY VV² & _hm^maV AZwemgZ nd© & 138/5 to 11).
    The gmpËdH$ and Y_© XmZ_ are held in high esteem and the ancient
    texts urge everyone to undertake the same daily, without any
    default. Manu says that the mind must always be engrossed in
    Danam (XmVm {ZË`_ZmXmVm…. 6/8) and it should be undertaken
    daily. ({H«$`mV² {ZaVm§ {ZË`§ XmZo `ko M H$_m©{U && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 19/22)
    51
    How of Danam – Obligatory Duty
    Bagavad Gita gives emphasis more on How of Danam
    rather than What of Danam. Equa􀀯ng it with Yajna and Tapa it
    proclaims Danam as a obligatory duty of everyone which is never
    to be done away with. (`k XmZ VnH$_© Z Ë`mÁ`§ H$m`©od VV²…..18/5)
    And it should be undertaken without the desire to get something
    in return. (XmVmÝ`{n V H$_m©{U g¥S> ì`ŠËdm \$bm{Z M & H$V©ì`m{_{V _o nmW©
    {Z{üV§ _V_wÎm__²& ^JdX²JrVm 18/61). Again Danam as a unavoidabble
    duty has been stressed and the selfish inten􀀯on of ge􀁏ng nwÊ`
    should never be the factor of considera􀀯on.
    To explain further, in Mahabharat various nwÊ` are
    a􀁉ached to different Danam like heaven for one who offers food
    to a hungry person but gaining Punya should never be the
    outlook of the giver at the 􀀯me of Danam even though a definite
    reward for a good deed is guaranteed in the ancient texts.
    It must be given before the needy asks for it and a Danam
    given to a person who does not seek is be􀁉er than one given to a
    person asking it; which implies the need of the needy must be
    understood before the needy begs for it (lo`mo Xo `mMV: nmW©
    XmZ_möa`mMVo….._hm^maV & AZw nd© 68/2).
    Danam – Dedicated to God
    Gita ordains that the Danam should be undertaken in the
    name of God and should be dedicated to Him. (Vñ_mX² Amo
    BË`wXmhËd `kXmZ Vn: {H«$`m: Gita 7/24). With the view that the whole
    universe belongs to God and without ego, the Danam is to be
    performed (VV² BË`Z{^gÜ`m` \$b§ `k Vn: {H«$`m: & XmZ {H«$`m ü {d{dYm:
    {H«$`ÝVo _mojH$m§{f{^: ^JdX²JrVm 7/25).
    The ego behind the act of giving should be avoided
    because what one posses which he intends to give to another,
    really belongs to God. And one posses it by the grace of the God
    and offering it to a needy is considered to be his duty towards
    52
    God too. This kind of a􀁏tude enables the Hindu psyche not to be
    greedy in possesing or hoarding the things but to be generous in
    offering it to others. Manu says that one should never boast of
    his Danam (Z XËdm n[aH$sV©`V² 4/236).
    Danam-With Devo􀀡on and Hapiness
    Danam should be performed with full devo􀀯on i.e. the
    giver should never feel sorry as to loose his possession by way of
    Danam. Not even in the remote corner of the mind, the giver
    should have such feeling of loosing his property and not that
    whatever is in abundance with him to be given. But whatever is
    most valuable to him should also to be given in Danam a􀁔er
    which he must happily accept the reality that whatever is
    offered, is not the possession of the receiver (XÎm§ _Ý`oV `X XËdm VX²
    XmZ§ loð> _w`MVo & _hm^maV AZwemgZ nd© & 59/4).
    During Danam the giver must u􀁉ar only sweet and kind
    words which not only appear to be sweet but also the feeling of
    kindness to be sincerely conveyed to be receiver, without which
    Danam does not carry any u􀀯lity. (XmZ_od {h gd©Ì gmÝËdoZmZm{^dpënV_
    && _hm^maV && em§{V nd© 84/7). Atharva Veda urges everyone to
    always think of Danam by reminding oneself “I will be dona􀀯ng”
    (XXm_rË`od ~«w`mV²&& AWd©doX && 12/4/1) while Rigveda calls upon to
    donate magnanimously (aMr§ gd©dra§ XYmV©Z, 10/15/11).
    Danam – By the Whole Community
    A beau􀀯ful prayer is offered in Atharva Veda which
    envisages unity in the community and also community mentality
    for Danam. The prayer is made to Indra and Vayu. Let the whole
    community be united, have friendly and virtuous mentality and
    let the community strive for Danam (`Wm Z gd© B‚mZ: g§JËdm§ g¥Zm
    AgX XmZ H$m_ YZmo ^dV² (Atharva Veda 3/20/6). It implies that all the
    members in the community come together to organise Danam
    for the collec􀀯ve benefit of the community and the needy
    persons thereupon.
    53
    Mutual Respect in Danam
    Manu lays down that both the giver and the receiver
    have mutual respect during “Danam” saying “mutual respect
    leads both to heaven and direspect to hell” (`mo{M©V§ à{VJ¥hUmVr
    XXmË`{M©V_od `& Vmd_mo JÀN>V: ñdJ© & ZaH§$ Vw{dnW©`o _Zwñ_¥{V 4/235).
    Honouring of the receiver is very essen􀀯al.
    Time Factor
    Danam must always be performed with base to the
    principle of 􀀯meliness. (Xo`§ H$mbo M Xmn`oV² & _hm^maV AZwemgZ nd© &
    57/11 Also H$mbo XmVmM AZwemgZ nd© 57/22).
    What of Danam
    What to be offered in Danam is not a big issue as far as
    the Ancient Hindu literature is concerned because anything and
    everything can be given in Danam. Rather the words “offering”
    “giving” or “dona􀀯ng” narrow the limit of the concept of Danam
    as “Vruksha Danam” (dona􀀯on of tree) has been recommended.
    The meaning of it should never be accepted literally to cut and
    offer a tree to another person. It means plan􀀯ng of trees for the
    benefit of others like travellers who require shade.
    Hence the Danam conveys a broader meaning than
    dona􀀯on and Danam is to be performed or “undertaken”.
    Further Danam is equated with Yajna or Tap which are to be
    performed with much devo􀀯on and care.
    Few examples of items under Danam which are different
    from the usual items like food., clothes, drinking water etc. are
    enumerated in the following paras.
    Abhaya Danam – Freedom From Fear
    Mabharat calls upon all to provide protec􀀯on or freedom
    from fear to all creatures and to be kind to all in distress and
    terms it as Abhaya Danam (A^`§ gd© ^yVoä`mo ì`gZo Mmß`ZwJ«h:…. XmZ§
    loð>_wÀN>Vo && AZwemgZ nd© 59/4 and 5). Protec􀀯on (freedom from
    fear) to be provided, must be of highest order and even if the life
    54
    has to be sacrificed, Abhaya Danam is to be held high. There
    exist no Danam equivalent to Abhaya Danam and one who
    provides it, gets the highest reward (A^`ñ` {h `mo XmVm Vñ`¡d g_whV²
    \$b_² & Z {h àmUg_§ XmZ§ {Vfw bmoHo$fw {dÚVo & _hm^maV & em§{V nd©& 72/24).
    Vruksha Danam (Plan􀀡ng of trees)
    Plan􀀯ng of trees for the benefit of others is considered as
    Danam because probably plan􀀯ng trees brings that much
    “Punya” like Danam. In Mahabharat, at Anushasan Parva,
    Bhishma urges for Vruksha Danam. The plan􀀯ng of trees brings
    fame and glory and heaven (EVm Om`ñVw d¥jmUm§ Vofm§ amono JwUpåd_o &
    H$s{V©ü _mZwfo bmoHo$ àoË` M¡d \$b§ ew^_² && AZwemgZ nd© 58/24). Trees are
    like children and they must be treated like children (Vñ` nwÌm
    ^ŠË`oVo nmXnm ZmÌ g§e`: && AZwemgZ nd© 58/27) and the trees are to be
    planted in the best places where they are of most u􀀯lity like on
    the bank of ponds and wells and on road sides. (Vñ_mV² VS>mJo gX²d¥jm
    : amoì`m lo`mo{`©Zm gXm & nwÌdV² n[anmë`úM nwÌmñVo Y_©V: ñ_¥Vm: & AZwnd©
    58/31).
    Deepa Danam (Providing Street Light)
    Another interes􀀯ng concept is that of Deepa Danam of
    providing street lights as men􀀯oned in Mahabharat. This ac􀀯vity
    must be undertaken daily. (XmVì`m XrnXmZ§ gVV§ && _hm^maV & AZwemgZ :
    nd© 68/28) and is must for all house holders (Vñ_mX² Xrnm: àXmVì`m gm`§
    do J¥h_opûK{^: AZw. nd© & 100/39). It is s􀀯ll more interes􀀯ng to note
    the places where street lights ought to be provided with.
    Mahabharat, urges people to provide street lights, daily at rivlets
    (small rivers near hills) at jungles, at temples, at squares of the
    roads, at ca􀁉le-houses, at houses of Brahmanas, at difficult
    places etc. ({J[aànmVo JhZo M¡Ë`ñ`mZo MVwfnWo & Jmo ~«åhmUmb`o XþJ} Xrnmo ^w{V
    àX: ew{M: & XrnXmZ§ ^dopÝXË`… AZwemgZ nd©& 98/53). The houses of
    Brahmanas may be the houses where educa􀀯on even in the
    night might have being imparted freely.
    55
    Observa􀀡on on Danam
    From the above discussion on Danam following
    observa􀀯ons can be drawn.
    1) As such, the concept of Danam has a broader meaning and
    applicability than the concept of charity.
    2) Danam is not a mere act of dona􀀡ng rather it is a welfare
    ac􀀯vity in which more involvement of the Giver is envisaged
    mentally and physically.
    3) It is welfare ac􀀯vity also in the sense that it is an obligatory
    duty of the Giver and the receiver is never looked down upon
    as, the element of pity or sympathy is not a criteria of much
    significance.
    4) The dignity of the receiver is always upheld by respec􀀯ng
    him, through the sweet and kind words and by providing him
    before he asks for it.
    5) The parameters of 􀀡me place and the needy as discussed
    above makes the concept of Danam all the more significant
    from the social work point of view.
    The Concept Dharma
    The concept of Dharma in Hindu Philosophy is of much
    significance as it is the life-line of the whole social life. Dharma
    concept carries a wider meaning and to explain it in a single
    defeni􀀯on acceptable in all contexts will be an effort in fu􀀯le.
    What is intended in the following paras, is to highlight its
    meaning from social work point of view and to enumearate how
    social work was envisaged through the concept of Dharma in
    ancient Hindu literature.
    The Dic􀀯onary meaning of the word Dharma includes
    “Virtue good work. duty, prescribed course of conduct” etc. But
    the Sanskrit terms are potent with deeper meaning than these,
    English words singley convey.
    56
    Dharma-as holder of society
    The word Dharma is derived from the Sanskrit root Dhru
    meaning to hold to gether, to preserve.6 “It is the norm which
    sustains the universe, the principle of a thing in virtue of which it
    is what it is”.7
    Shrikrishna says Dharma is so called because it protects
    all (YmaUmV Y_© BË`mhwa Y_m} Yma`Vo àOm: && _hm^maV em§Vrnd© 109/59).
    Dharma preserves all that is created (`ñ` ñ`mV YmaU g`wŠVmg g Y_©
    B{V {ZíM`: && _hm^maV H$U© nd© 109/11).
    Dharma – As Love for All
    In Mahabharat, Bhishma, gives a simple meaning to
    Dharma. He says to Yudhishthira “Whatever is the result
    obtained by the love for all is Dharma and O! Yudhishthira, know
    this as the brief characteris􀀯c difference between Dharma and
    Adharma” (gd© {à`ä`wMJV§ Y_©mh_©Zr{fU: & ní`oV§ Y_m©Y_} `w{Y{îR>a: &&
    _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 259/25). Further, all that is free from doing harm
    to any living being is certainly Dharma. (`_ ñ`mV² A{hg g§`wŠVmg gm
    Y_© B{V {Zü`: && _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 109/58). Non-violence is the
    highest Dharma (A{hg§ gH$bmo Y_m©:…. _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 272/20).
    Dharma- for the Welfare of all
    Dharma is meant for the welfare of all (bmoH$g§J«h g§`wŠV…
    gyú_ Y_m©W© {Z`V§….&& _hm^maV& em§{Vnd© 259/26). The purpose of
    Dharma is the well being of all as Shrikrishna says “Dharma is
    created for the well being of all living creatures” (à^dmW©² M ^¥VmZm§
    Y_© àdMZ§ {H«$V_²…. _hm^maV& H$U© nd© 69/57). Again Swayambhuwa
    Brahma has created Dharma for the well-being of all (à^dmWª {h
    ^yVmZm§ Y_© g¥ï> ñd`§^wd&& _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 89/18) and with the growth
    of Dharma, the growth and development of all take place (Y_©
    dY©{V dY©pÝV gd© ^yVm{Z gd©Xm && _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 89/17). It is Dharma
    from which happiness and beau􀀯tude results (`Vmo Aä`wX` {Zlo`ñ`
    {g{Õ{h gm Y_©). Shrikrishna says “I take form for protec􀀯ng the
    57
    good and destroying the evil for the purpose of establishing
    Dharma (n[aÌmUm` gmYyZm§ {dZmem` M XþîH¥$Vm§& Y_© g§ñ`mnZmWm©` g§^dm{_ `wJo
    `wJo && ^JdX²JrVm 4/81). Dr. Sinha notes “Dharma is what is
    conducive to the welfare of all being which is the supreme duty;
    devo􀀯on to the highest good of humanity is the highest
    Dharma”.8
    Dharma – as a Social Principle
    Manu conceives Dharma as the prefect social principle
    which helps the upholder. Explaining the consequences of
    destruc􀀯on of Dharma, manu says “one who destroys Dharma,
    gets destroyed himself while Dharma protects him who upholds
    Dharma (Y_© Ed hVmo hpÝV Y_m©o aj{V a{jV: && _Zwñ_¥{V 8/15)
    Who Knows Dharma
    The Mahabharat records “he who by his ac􀀯on, mind
    and speech is con􀀯nuously engrossed in the welfare of others
    and who is always a friend of others O! Jajali knows Dharma
    (gd}fm§ `h _wh{ÞË`§ gd}fm§ M {hVoaV: & H$_©Um _Zgm dmMm g Y_© doX OmObo &&
    em§{Vnd© 26/29).
    Essence of Dharma
    Devala Smru􀀯 records “know this to be the essence of
    Dharma and then prac􀀯ce it, refrain from doing unto others
    what you will not have done unto yourself” (lw`Vm§ Y_©gd©gd§ lwËdm
    Mm{n AdYma`Vm§ & AmË_Z: à{VHy$bm{Z naofm§ Z g_mMaoV²).9
    Dharma – Dignity of All
    The basic principle of Dharma is the realisa􀀯on of the
    dignity of all, as God dwells in all. The knowledge that supreme
    spirit dwells in the heart of every living creature is the abiding
    root principle of all Dharma (^JdmZ² dmgwXodmo {h gd©^yVofy AdpñWV: &
    EVV² kmZ§ hr gd©ñ` _yb§ Y_©ñ` emoeV_²).
    Observa􀀡on of Dharma
    From the above discussion, the following observa􀀯ons
    58
    can be drawn :
    1) Dharma is a comprehensive concept in which social work is
    taken care of.
    2) Dharma envisages the principles which has to be observed
    daily in the social rela􀀯ons with the purpose of welfare of all in
    one’s mind.
    3) Dharma was the chief factor that shaped men’s lives and the
    Dharma engrossed everyone for the welfare of others and be like
    a friendly social worker in thoughts and deeds.
    4) Dharma as a social principle upholds the dignity of all and
    sustains the social life for its smooth func􀀯oning which helped
    the society to help itself.
    The Concept Yajna
    Yajna is a unique concept, which probably can not be
    traced in any philosophy other than Hindu Philosophy. It is s􀀯ll in
    vogue and is a􀁉ached with invaluable significance in Hindu life
    and is termed as the greatest ac􀀯on (`kmo do loð>V_ H$_© && `Owd}X 1/1).
    What is prac􀀯ced at present, might not have been perceived in
    the ancient days. No wonder, that much devia􀀯on in its original
    meaning and prac􀀯ce took place as Yajna has been tradi􀀯onally
    handed down to genera􀀯ons to genera􀀯ons for the last
    thousands of years.
    The author a􀁉empts to analyse Yajna concept in the
    following paras.
    Meaning of Yajna
    The dic􀀯onary meaning of Yajna is “sacrifice, sacrifical
    rite, any offering or obla􀀯on, an act of worship or devo􀀯onal act
    etc.”
    But the meaning will be more clear from the actual usage
    of the term.
    Hospitality – As Yajna
    Atharva Veda proclaims that the guest or stranger
    59
    coming to the house is to be treated like God (1/11/2). And it
    urges to provide best hospitality to the guest and says “What
    ever is offered to the guest is like offering, made in Yajna,
    morever the hospitality itself is Yajna (`X² dm A{V{W n{Va{V…. EVñ`
    `kmo {dVVmo….g Jmh©àË`mo….Atharva Veda 6/1 to 62). It implies that a
    service to another especially to a stranger or guest coming to the
    house is “Yajna” which is to be performed with full devo􀀯on and
    care.
    Mahabharat stress upon the same point of view and calls
    it as Pancha Dakshina Yajna (n§M XjrUm `k) it proclaims water
    given to the guest for cleaning his feat, seat offered, light (or
    lamp) provided, food to eat and shelter for rest, cons􀀯tute the
    Pancha Dakshina Yajna (nmÚ_mgZ _odmW© Xrn_Þ à{V ld_² & XÚmX{V{n
    nyOmW© g `k: n§ÀMX{jU && _hm^maV AZwemgZ nd© 7/12). It further
    elaborates on the method of providing hospitality, by saying
    “Receive the guest with pleasant eyes, engage the whole mind
    (sincerely) at his service, speak to him with sweet and kind
    words, accompany him for some distance when he leaves the
    house, always keep him comfortable; all these cons􀀯tute Panch
    Dakshina Yajna (MjwX©X²`mMmZmo XX²`mX dmM XÚmƒ g¥Z¥Vm_² & AZwd«Oo Xþnmg{V
    g `k: nÀMX{jU: AZwemgZ nd© 17/6).
    It becomes clear that hospita-lity is not equated with
    Yajna rather it in itself is held as “Yajna”. This supports the view
    that Yajna is an ac􀀯vity in which selfless service to others is the
    essen􀀯al factor.
    Panch Maha Yajna (nM _hm `k)
    Ancient literature call upon every house-holder
    (Gruhastha) and also persons in other Ashrama to perform
    Panch Maha Yajna without fail. Manu says the great Rishis
    provided Panch Maha Yajna to get rid of the Pap (nmn) (sin), and
    is to be performed daily (Vmgm§ H«$_Uo gdm©gm§ {ZîH¥$Ë`W© _h{f©{^: & n§À`
    Šb¥ßVm _hm`km: àË`h J«h_o{YZm_² && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/69).
    60
    Manu clarifies further “learning or teaching (Vedas) is
    Brahma Yajna, obla􀀯on to forefathers is Pitru Yajna, sacrifice is
    Dewa Yajna, feeding animals is Bhuta Yajna and hospitality to
    guests is Nru-Yajna (AÜ`mnZ§ ~«÷`k: {nV¥`kVw Vn©U_ & hmomo X¡dmo
    ~m{b^moVmo Z¥`kmo A{V{WnyOZ_² && _Zw ñ_¥{V 3/70) and ordains everyone
    to undertake these according to one’s might (dÀ`¡VmÝ`mo _hm`kmÞ
    hmn`{V e{ŠVV: & _Zw ñ_¥{V 3/71). Yajnavalkya Smru􀀡 (1/102) and
    Ashwalayana Gruhya Sutra (3/1/4) also hold the same view.
    Manu asks Gruhasthas (the house-holders) to eat only a􀁔er
    when food is offered to Gods, parents, guests, servants etc. and
    proclaims Yajnashistha (Whatever is le􀁒 behind `k {eï> ) food is
    the best food for a wise man. (` k{eï>meZ§ hmoVËgVm_ÝZ {dÚr`Vo _Zw
    ñ_¥{V 2/118 also read 116 and 117) which implies that offering of
    food to other itself is Yajna. Atharva Veda makes it more clear
    that offering of food to others itself is Yajna (Atharva Ved 4/34).
    Bhagawad Gita says “one who eats Yajna Shishtha (whatever is
    le􀁔 a􀁔er offering others) gets rid of all pap (sin) and one who
    cooks food only for the self, eats Pap only (`k{eîQ>m{eZ gÝVmo _wƒÝVo
    gd© {H$ pëdf¡ & _wOwVoVo ËdX nmnm `o nMÝË`m` Ë_H$maUmV² g Bhagwad Gita
    3/13). This again supports the earlier view of Manu and Atharva
    Veda”.
    Mental Yajna for the Welfare of People
    Mahabharat envisages mental Yajna too. It says “wise
    Dwijas trea􀀯ng themselves as instruments of Yajna performed
    mental Yajna for the welfare of the people” (ñd_od MmWª Hw$dm©U `k
    MH«$ nwZ{Xd²Om: & n[a{Z{îQ>VH$_m©U àOmZwJ«hH$å“m && _hm em§{Vnd© & 263/27).
    Without construing the implied meaning of mental Yajna and
    commi􀁏ng a mistake thereby the verse clearly suggests that
    Yajna is performed for the welfare the people.
    Yajna – an Obligatory Duty for the Welfare of the People
    Bhagavad Gita throws more light on Yajna concept in
    chapter III. The creator in the beginning of the universe, created
    61
    the people along with Yajna and proclaimed that through this,
    the people will get what they want and will a􀁉ain growth and
    development (gh`km: àOm: g¥ï>m§ nwamodmM àOmn{V: & AZoZ àg{dî` Üd_of
    dmo@pñËdf¥H$m_YwH$ && Bhagavad Gita 3/10). But what exactly is Yajna
    or what it is made up of one should dwell deeper into ancient
    scriptures.
    Shrikrishna says Yajna is made up of ac􀀯ons or moral
    du􀀯es (`k: H$_© g§^d: Bhagavad Gita 3/14). Duty is not merely
    ritualis􀀯c act prescribed by the Vedas but it includes whatever
    we are obliged to do by birth and status in society.10
    And the ac􀀯ons (du􀀯es) are to be oriented to the welfare
    of all because Gita says “Even the learned people like Janaka
    a􀁉ained the utmost stage of salva􀀯on only doing their ac􀀯on
    (du􀀯es) and hence for the purpose of welfare of the people, O!
    Arjun you deserve to perform your ac􀀯on (du􀀯es)” (H$_©U¡d {h
    g{g{Xd_pñ`Vm OZH$mX`: & bmoH$g§J«h_od{n gní`ÝH$Vw©hr{g Bhagavad Gita
    3/20). Krishna con􀀯nues “Hence with the a􀁏tude of non
    a􀁉achment perform your du􀀯es perfectly and consistently as
    man with non a􀁉achment, a􀁉ains salva􀀯on through du􀀯es.”
    (Vñ_mXgŠV: gVV§ H$m`ª H$_© g_mMa & AgH$Vmo ô`mMnH$_© na_mÝ`mo{V nwéf:
    Bhagavad Gita 3/19). Let the doubt be cleared that nona
    􀁉achment may lead to non-performance of duty”. Krishna says
    “Non-a􀁉ached wise man perform duty for the welfare of the
    people.” (Hw$`m©{XdX²dm§ñV`mgŠV {üH$sf©w bmoH$g§J«h 3/25).
    How to Perform Yajna
    Explaining Yajna as the obligatory duty meant for the
    welfare of the people, Shrikrishna hints out the method of
    performing yajna. He says “O! Arjun dedicate your yajna i.e.
    du􀀯es, to the God and perform them in the name of God, with
    non-a􀁉achement, otherwise a mind with a􀁉achment never
    produce salva􀀯on” (`km`m©ËH$_©UmoÝ`V bmoH$mo@`§ H$_© ~ÝYZ: & VXW© H$_©
    H$m¡ÝVo` _wŠVg§J g_mMma && Bhagavad Gita 3/9). “Through Yajna, let all
    62
    of you strive for the well – being of Gods, and let the community
    of Gods strive for your welfare. Thus by recognising it as mutual
    responsibility let all of you reach to the highest good”
    (XodmÝ^mdVmZoZ Vo Xodm ^md`ÝVd: & nañna§ ^mdÁV: lo`: na_dmßñ` n && ^JdX²
    JrVm 3/11).
    Classifica􀀡on of Yajna
    Bhagavad Gita gives three classifica􀀯ons of Yajna,
    namely Satvik, Rajas and Tamas (gm{ËdH$, amOg², Vm_g²). Satvik
    Yajna is one which is performed according to “Shastras” and fully
    sa􀀯stying the mind as it is an obligatory duty without the desire
    of rewards. (A\$bmH$mB{j{^`©kmo {d{YhîR>mo ` BÀN>Vo & `îQ>Ê`_odo{V _Z:
    g_mÜ`m` g gm{ËdH$: && 17/11).
    Rajas Yajna is that one which is performed with false ego,
    just to show off and with the desire of reward (A{^g§Ym` Vw \$b
    Xå`m`©{n M¡d`V² & BÀN>Vo ^aV loð> V§ `k {d{Õ amOg_² && 17/12). And one
    which is performed unscien􀀯fically, without the distribu􀀯on of
    food, Dakshina, and with least dedica􀀯on and faith is termed as
    Tamas Yajna ({d{YhrZ_gîQ>mÞ§ _ZhrZàX{jUm lÕm{da{hV `k Vm_g§
    n[aMjgo && 17/1/13).
    Satvik Yajna is the best Yajna there by implying that
    ac􀀯ons or du􀀯es performed for the welfare of others without
    expec􀀯ng a reward are the ones which every member of the
    society, must undertake which result in mutual help and
    reciprocal welfare of all in the society.
    Yajna-for Collec􀀡ve good of the Comminity
    Whatever the nature and form of Yajna as it exists today,
    even from that the real purpose for which it is performed can
    easily be construed. The real inten􀀯on behind Yajna is
    “defenitely not for the benefit of the individual par􀀯cipants but
    for the collec􀀯ve good or benefit of all”. The mantras ultered are
    of significance to bring out this real purpose. The two mantras
    used are Swaha (ñdmhm) and Idam Na Mama (BX§ Z __). Usually
    63
    the whole community takes part in the performance of Yajna and
    every par􀀯cipant u􀁉ers the above two Mantras.
    Swaha (ñdmhm) means Sacrificing of self-things as the
    mantra is made up of two le􀁉ers Swa (ñdm) and Ha (hm). Swa ñd
    meaning of one’s own and Ha hm means to leave, forsake or
    relinguish1 (or in other words sacrificing the false ego or own
    thing itself Yajna).
    Again every par􀀯cipant in Yajna, virtually all the
    members of the community individually u􀁉ers the mantra
    Iadam Na Mama which means it is not mine or it does not
    belong to me. Then whose it is or to whom does it belong to. In a
    way it is renuncia􀀯on of things in favour of the Gods. But Gods
    also performed Yajna, then to whom do they renunciate.
    Morever, not only the human beings and Gods but also
    forefathers, Gandharvas and Rakshasas depend upon Yajna (Xodm
    _Zwî`m: {nVamo JÝYdm} aJamjgm:& `k_odmo nOrdÝVr Zm{gV MoîQ>_amOHo$ & _hm^maV
    em§Vr nd© & 72/28).
    It does mean that it belonged to the (human or
    otherwise) community collec􀀯vely as a whole and not
    individually, through which the collec􀀯ve good of the
    community is envisaged. The Sukta 15 of Kanda I of Atharva
    Veda supports this view”.11
    Social Work Educators on Yajna
    Miss Gauri Banerjee notes the concept of Yajna.12
    “ I t m a y b e w o r t h w h i l e t o q u o t e s w a m i
    Chinmmayananda’s commentary of the verse (Bhagavad Gita
    3/20). The word Yajna is here taken as any social, ra􀀯onal or
    personal ac􀀯vity to which the individual is ready to devote
    himself en􀀯rely in spirit of service or dedica􀀯on. Only when
    people come forward to act in the spirit of co-opera􀀯on and self
    dedica􀀯on, can the community get itself freed from the shackles
    of poverty and sorrow. This interpreta􀀯on of the Yajna indeed
    64
    marked a daring revolu􀀯on in Indian thought which is in
    consonance with the available po􀀯􀀯cal and economic structure
    of India in VYASA’S 􀀯me……. Krishna, the Redeemer of Hinduism,
    naturally gives the Gita a new interpreta􀀯on and emphasis to the
    empty deed pharse, Yajna. He refills it with a vital life giving
    content”.
    Prof. Raja Ram Shastri in his Hindi book, deals in length
    about the concept of Yajna and writes.13
    “The oldest nature of Yajna portays Satra (gÌ) (Being
    together) and Kratu (H«$Vw) (Sacrifice). When the community of
    Gods, used to perform Yajna, the satra and kratu existed in its
    complete form and love for all was in its peak…… It was the
    community ac􀀯ons performed daily for the purpose of social
    security and social development. Hence this word in Sanskrit,
    meant Yogapadya, Eikikrita, Samuhikata (`moJnÚ, EoH$sH¥$V,
    gm_w{hH$Vm).
    Yajna – Various Meanings
    Ancient Hindu literature addresses various ac􀀯vi􀀯es as
    Yajna which are specially self less ac􀀯vi􀀯es. Life of man itself is
    Yajna (nwéfmo dmd `kñVñ`…. N>ÝXmo½` Cn{ZfX 3/16/1). Humility is Yajna
    (`kmo d¡ Z_: & `Owd}X 13/8). Non-Violence is Yajna (AÜdamo d¡ `k: &
    eVnW ~«måhU && 1/2/4/5; 1/4/1/38). All living creatures depend on
    Yajna (`kmo d¡ {demo `k {h gdm©{U ^yVm{Z {dï>m{Z && eVnW ~«måhU 8/7/3).
    Yajna is the centre of universal life (`kmo d¡ ^wdZñ`Zm{^: && V¡Îmar`
    ~«måhU 3/9/5/5). Money u􀀯lised for service of others is Drawya
    Yajna fulfilling one’s obliga􀀯on is Tapa Yajna. And there are more
    like Jana Yajna, Yoga Yajna etc. (Ðì“kmñVnmo `km `moJ`kmñVWmnao &
    ñdmÜ`m`kmZ `kmü `V`: g§{eVH$Vm: && ^JdV JrVm 4/28).
    Yajna Symbolic ac􀀡vity of helping the whole universe
    Fire God is regarded as the agent of Gods (A¾r _rio
    nwamo{hV_ `kñ` Xod… F$½doX 1/1/1) and it is through offering in fire
    65
    that all Gods receive their share. Fire is also regarded as the
    symbol of Sun… the ul􀀯mate and ever las􀀯ng powerful source of
    energy. Sun is the source of life of earth, and everything depends
    on Sun. Ahou􀀯 or offering is made in the fire as a symbolic
    ac􀀯vity of offering to sun. Manu makes it clear “offering in fire
    reaches the Sun” (AnZmo àñVmhþVr: g_`Jm{XË`_wnVrîR>Vo-_Zwñ_¥Vr 3/76).
    Manu con􀀯nues “it is because of Sun that it rains, rain produces
    food which in turn creates life on earth” (Am{XË`mÁÁ`mVo d¥îQ>rd¥©ÛoQ>oaÝZ§
    VV: àOm: && _Zwñ_¥Vr 3/76).
    Thus it implies that making an offering to fire, ul􀀯mately
    helps all life on earth to survie and to develop. Offering in fire is a
    symbolic ac􀀯vity of individual sharing his social responsibility of
    becoming a part what-so-ever li􀁉le it may be, in the gigan􀀯c
    process of helping the life on earth. It is with this percep􀀯on that
    the sacrificial fire is kindled and offering is made in the Yajna. The
    same percep􀀯on can be traced in case of A􀀡thi Pujanam also.
    The guest or the A􀀯thi is considered as Wishwanara Agni or
    Garhapatya Agni entering the house. Anything offered to the
    guest is equalivant to offering made to fire God.
    Dr. Madhukar As􀀯kar notes “to induce noble quali􀀯es in
    human life, to evolve good maners… itself is Yajna. To integrate
    (life of) individual, family, Society and Na􀀯on is Yajna. Whatever
    is dearer to us, needed to us, offering all such thing to others,
    imbing such mentality to sacrifice for others, developing such
    habits moulding the mind and the senses, to think of all things as
    not belonging to the self….. is Yajna.”14
    Observa􀀡on on the Concept of Yajna
    The author would like to draw some inference on the
    basis of above discussion and would like to make the following
    observa􀀯on on the concept of Yajna.
    1) The concept Yajna is not necessarily merely the sacrifice or
    worshipping God through fire.
    66
    2) Yajna had broader meaning and was made of selfless ac􀀯on
    or du􀀯es for the welfare of all.
    3) All members of the community took part in it, for the
    collec􀀯ve benefit of all thereby rendering it into a perfect social
    ac􀀯vity.
    4) The principles of mutual help and non-a􀁉achment by way of
    non-desire of reward were the bo􀁉om lines of this social ac􀀯vity.
    5) In this social ac􀀯vity, people (example of Rishis) considered
    themselves as instrument and with the spirit of co-opera􀀯on,
    were ready to sacrifice for the welfare of the whole community.
    6) Yajna in short is nothing but the collec􀀯ve ac􀀯ons (of each
    one performing each one’s duty with devo􀀯on) of people who
    helped mutually, coming forward in the spirit of co-opera􀀯on
    with non-a􀁉achment to self gain, for the purpose of welfare, of
    collec􀀯ve good, or benefit of the community.
    Thus Danam Dharma and Yajna concepts cons􀀯tuted
    the three bases of ancient Social Work ideology. Danam basically
    was a welfare ac􀀯vity meant for the less privileged persons,
    while Dharma cons􀀯tuted the obligatory du􀀯es towards society
    and Yajna was a group effort for the collec􀀯ve good of the
    society.
    Ancient literature proclaims Dharma Consists of three
    branches namely Yajna, self learning and Danam (Ì`mo Y_© ñH§$Ym
    `kmo@ Ü“Z§ XmZ{_{V && N>ÝXmo½` Cn{ZfX 2/23/1).
    Danam helped the society in its effort to up-li􀁔 the life of
    less-privileged and to undertake construc􀀯ve ac􀀯vi􀀯es like
    plan􀀯ng trees and providing lights. On the other hand, Dharma
    helped the society not to let down the condi􀀯ons of well-being
    but to maintain and to develop further, while “Yajna”
    contributed the necessary in put of group co-opera􀀯on and
    sacrifice for others.
    These three concepts gave a perfect and complete, and
    67
    ever sustaining net-work of social work and no wonder the
    ancient Hindu society survived and flourished for thousands of
    years. The prac􀀯ce of these in le􀁉er and spirit would render
    external ins􀀯tu􀀯onal help redundant, as the miserable are taken
    care of and the developmental works under taken, guaranteed
    with mutual co-opera􀀯on with in the society.
    Bases of Ancient Social Work Philosophy
    Even though there was no ques􀀯on of existence of
    welfare agencies in the compact and small communi􀀯es of
    ancient India, Hindu Philosophy could evolve ways and means
    which gave the necessary organised impact of social work
    ac􀀯vi􀀯es. For example, construc􀀯on of public wells and inns,
    plan􀀯ng of trees and providing of street light etc. with the
    religious sanc􀀯ons on every king and State – to undertake such
    ac􀀯vi􀀯es – produced the net effect of any modern organised
    Social Work ac􀀯vity.
    It is but natural to appreciate that such ac􀀯vi􀀯es have
    been rooted in some bases or basic concepts of Hindu
    Philosophy and what is lacking is that these bases are to be
    logically deduced. The following paras are devoted to discuss on
    the philosophical bases of ancient Social Work.
    The Hindu Concept of Rina (F$U – Debts)
    The concept of “Rina” is widely held in Hindu philosophy.
    “Rina” means “debt” which is to be repaid and there is no other
    way but to repay it. Manu, the esteemed Shastrakara on Hindu
    life as also other Shastrakaras men􀀯on basically three debts,
    namely
    1) Rishi Rina – debt towards the Rishis or Seers
    2) Pri􀀡 Rina – debt towards forefathers
    3) Deva Rina – debt towards god
    (F$Um{Z ÌrÊ`nmH¥$Ë`……….._Zw ñ_¥{V 6/36)
    The ways to repay these debts are – The Rishi Rina can be
    68
    repaid by learning Vedas, held as the lores of community – the
    Pitri Rina by bege􀁏ng progenies for con􀀯nua􀀯on of family and
    propoga􀀯on of the species – the Deva Rina by undertaking
    Yajnas according to one’s capacity.
    (AYrË` {ddX²doXmZ² nwÌm§lMmoËnmX` Y_©V: & Bï>dm M e{ŠVVmo `k_©Zmo _mojo
    {Zdoe`oV² && _Zwñ_¥Vr 6/36)
    The epic Mahabharata, regarded as the fi􀁔h Veda,
    speaks of few more Rinas and ways to get rid of them. It says
    “Every individual gets born with Rinas towards God, the
    strangers, the dependants, the fore fathers and to self” (XodVm{V{W
    ^¥Ë`må`: {nV¥ä`ümË_ZñV`m Om`Vo _Ë`©: Vñ_mX Z¥UVm§ d«OoV&& _hm^maV&
    em§{Vnd© 292/9).
    In the next immediate verse, it men􀀯ons some more
    Rinas and also the ways of repaying them. “By self-study Rishi
    Rina can be repaid, the Deva Rina by organising Yajnas, the Pitri
    Rina, by obla􀀯on (lmÕ) and charity (XmZ), the A􀀡thi Rina, termed
    as Manushya Rina can be repaid by hospitality and service to
    guests (ñdmÜ`m`oZ _h{f©ä`mo Xodoä`mo `kH$_©Um & {nV¥ä`: lmÕXmZoZ
    Z¥Um_ä`M©ZoZ M && _hm^maV & em§{V nd© & 299/10).
    It futher lays down one can get rid of Atma Runa (Selfdebt)
    by listening to and learning of Vedas and ea􀀯ng the food,
    le􀁔 a􀁔er Yajna (which means feeding others first) and the
    dependent Rina can be repaid by looking a􀁔er all the
    dependants” (dmMmeofmdhm`}U nmbZoZmË_Zmo {d M & `WmdX² ^¥Ë`dJ©ñ`
    {MH$sf}V H$_© Am{XV: && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 292/11) and repaying is the
    first and foremost duty of every individual. ( H$_© Am{XV:)
    The repayment of these debts is binding on all and is
    compusorily necessary for the a􀁉ainment of Moksha.
    Manu says “Turn your mind for Moksha, only a􀁔er
    repayment the Rinas and one who strives for Moksha without
    repayment of Rinas, definitely goes to hell” (F$Um{Z ÌrÊ`nmH©$Ë` _Zmo
    _mojo {Zdoí`oV² & AnZmH©$Ë` _moj§ Vw god_mZmo d«À`Ë`K: _Zwñ_¥{V & 6/35). Manu
    69
    emphasises the same point at 6/35 and 6/37 and also Yajna
    Valkya 3/56 speaks of the same. The Mahabharata proclaims
    “First repay the debts of fellow human beings reques􀀯ng help,
    fore-fathers and God, and then do the other things. (Am{W©Zm§ M
    {nV¥Um§ M XodVmZm§ M ^maV & AZ¥Ê`§ JÀN> H$m¢Vo` VV² gd© M H$[aî`{g && _hm^maV
    em§{Vnd© & 24/6)
    It becomes clear from the above discussion that every
    individual is conceived as owing debts right from his birth and
    that the ways of repaying them are just not worshipping God in
    temple. The ways are definite, precise in their meaning but
    larger at their implica􀀯ons and easily prac􀀯cable for all. There
    remains no way of escaping from debts or excuse for not
    repaying them as the Moksha can never be achieved without
    their fulfillment. The Hindu Seers beau􀀯fully integrated the life
    􀀯me aim Moksha of every individual with his debts which
    demanded ac􀀯ons oriented towards welfare of others. The so
    called selfish of self-centered Moksha is possible only through
    the service of others.
    Now the Rinas towards strangers, towards dependants
    and towards fellow human beings carry much significance from
    the social work point of view. The Pitri Rina – bege􀁏ng issues for
    the con􀀯nua􀀯on of the society is seen as fulfilment of a debt and
    a duty towards society. The Deva Rina, organising of Yajnas and
    the “Rishi Rina”— learning of Vedas are for the welfare of all
    (AmåZm`dMZ§ gË`{_Ë“§ bmoH$g§J«h: & AmåZm`oä`: nwZd}X àgwVm: gd©Vmo _wIm: &&
    _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 260/9) and when considered as the lores of the
    society, Vedas allude their social significance. The welfare
    (bmoH$g§J«h, H$ë`mU) in Hindu Philosophy is the wholesome welfare,
    in which the spiritual welfare is at the highest level.
    The hospitality to strangers is not just offering of food
    and water, it is given with esteem or as worship and the same is
    true regarding caring of the dependants and the concept of self-
    70
    debt. The repayment of these debts speaks the greatest
    principle of “other first than self” in sharing the food which leads
    to service to others.
    Thus the seeds of social work have been sown in the life
    of the Hindu individual right from his birth and the Social Work
    ac􀀯vi􀀯es become natural, inborn and easy to prac􀀯ce.
    Panch Mah Yajnas (n§M _hm `k)
    Ancient Social work owes it ideological base to another
    concept termed as “Panch Maha Yajna” (n§M _hm `k) which is
    the outcome of Rina concept. Manu proclaims “Learning and
    teaching is Brahma Yajna, (~«åh `k) offering water to manes is
    Pitri Yajna ({nV¥ `k), performing sacrifices is Deva Yajna (Xod
    `k), offering food to living creatures is Bhuta Yajna (^yV `k) and
    A􀀡thi Pujanam (A{V{W nyOZ_²) hospitality towards guests in
    Nru-Yajna (Z¥`k) (AX²`mnZ_² ~«åh `k: {nV¥`kñVw Vn©U_² & hmomo Xodmo
    ~br^m}Vmo Z¥`kmo A{V{WnyOZ_² && _Zwñ_¥{V && 3/70).
    These Yajnas must be performed daily by all house
    holders (`ÀM Šb¥ßVm _hm`km: àË`h_² J¥h_o{YZm_²&& _Zwñ_¥{V 3/69), along
    with taking care of dependents, parents and the self because
    “One who does not take care of God, the guests, the parents the
    dependants and the self is living like a dead man”
    (XodVm{V{`^¥Ë`mZm_² {nV¥Um_mË_ZúM`: & Z {Zdm©M{V nÁMmZm_² _wÀN>ngÞ g
    Ord{V &&).
    Deva Yajna (Xod `k) and Pitri Yajna ({nV¥ `k) or these
    two Rinas occur in Rigveda, but for the first 􀀯me the concept of
    Panch Maha Yajna comes in Shatapata Brahmana14 (n§M Ed
    _hm`km: 11/5/6) Vaishva Deva is the procedure by which the
    offerings are made to Gods under the wider concept of Panch
    Maha Yajna.
    Joshi notes {díd means all. Vaishva Deva means offering
    of part of our food to all. Vaisha Deva is the remnant of ancient
    71
    Yajna and 􀀯ll the beginning of the present century, it was
    prac􀀯ced by most of the families.15
    P. V. Kane writes “Bali or Bhuta Yajna is a part of Vaishva
    Deva…. Bali (~{b) should be offered to the prosperity of all on
    the first floor of the house….. on top of the house…… at the foot
    of the house….. in water….. a bali (~{b) to Maruts on the door…..
    a bali to the trees bali should be offered to the manes towards
    the south….. the house holder should lightly (so that no dust will
    get mixed with it) offer on the ground some food to dogs etc.”16
    Manu declares that the guests must be received by
    offering food and all creatures be respected by Bali Karma
    (…Z¥ZÝZ¡ ^y©Vm{Z ~{bH$_©Um && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/81). Manu con􀀯nues “offer
    food to the sky for all Gods, and offer Bali (food) in the day 􀀯me to
    creatures moving in day 􀀯me and offer Bali in the night, for
    creatures moving in the night” ({dúMä`Y¡d Xodoä`mo ~{b_mH$me C{ÝjnoV²
    & {Xdm`aoä`mo ^wVoä`mo ZŠVMm[aä` Ed M && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/90).
    Welfare of all creatures can be understood from the
    teaching of Manu, “Bali be offered carefully to dogs, outcastes,
    chandalas, to those suffering from disease, crows and the
    crawling creatures” (ewZm§ M n{VVmZm§ M ûdnMm§ nmnamo{JUm_² & dmMgmZm§
    H¥$_rUm§ M eZH¡${Zd©ZoX^w{d && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/93) and “a person a􀁉ains the
    highest place, who daily offers food to all” (Ed§ `: gd© ^wVm{Z ~«måhUo
    {ZË`_M©{V & g JÀN>{V na ñ`mZ§ VoOmo _w{V© nWOw©Zm && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/93).
    P.v. Kane writes “These direc􀀯ons to give food even to
    outcastes, dogs and birds were the out come of the noble
    sen􀀯ment of universal kindliness and charity, the idea that one
    spirit pervades and illumines the meanest of creatures and binds
    all together. The whole world human and non-human is one
    crea􀀯on and there must be a spirit of live and let live or give and
    take. Therefore one must offer what one can afford to a guest
    and also have something for all beings. These feelings of
    devo􀀯on, gra􀀯tude and tolerance seem to have been the springs
    72
    that prompted the Aryans of old, to emphaize the importance of
    the five daily Yajnas.”17
    Reading this concept of Panch Maha Yajna along with
    the concept of Rinas help to bring out the importance a􀁉ached
    by the Hindu Seers to service to others. The importance can be
    visualised from the fact that feeding animals and hospitality to
    strangers are Yajnas in themselves. Again the Yajnas are not
    op􀀯onals for the individual to prac􀀯ce at his will or wish, rather
    they are compulsorily to be prac􀀯ced daily as obbigatory du􀀯es.
    The prac􀀯ce must con􀀯nue even at the stage of Vanaprastha
    Ashrama the third stage of living in the woods for Moksha
    purpose. Thus, the concept of Panch Maha Yajna too acted as
    the philosophical base for the ancient Social Work.
    The place of Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap (nmn)
    The concept of Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap (nmn) hold
    significant place in deducing the ideology of ancient Indian social
    work Punya (nwÊ`) means merit and Pap (nmn) means sin or
    demerit, usually counted at the 􀀯me of weighing the total virtue
    of a person a􀁔er his death.
    The great Maharshi Vyasa summed up all Puranas saying
    helping others meant Punya and causing injury to others meant
    Pap (nmn). (Aï>mXe nwamUofw ì`mgm` dMZ Xd`§ & namonH$mam` nwÊ`m` nmnm` na
    nrS>Z_²&) In other words all the good ac􀀯ons by mind, speech, and
    deed which are helpful to others, brought Punya and the wrong
    ac􀀯ons brought Pap to an individual. As per Hindu Philosophy,
    one acquires heaven or hell depending on his Punya and Pap.
    These are the two psychological sovereigns which govern the
    ac􀀯ons of living men. Enough Punya meaning there by good
    deeds in one’s life, reaches him to heaven where he lives 􀀯ll all
    his Punya get exhausted. Similarly Pap leads him to hell where he
    has to undergo miserable life 􀀯ll the Pap effect is completed.
    Further, the individual himself and no one else including the
    73
    family members is held responsible for the Pap or the wrong
    deeds and both Punya and Pap follows him even in the second
    life which becomes happy or miserable accordingly.
    Again, the amount of Punya for various good deeds and
    the amount of Pap for different wrong ac􀀯ons are clearly laid
    down and some 􀀯mes only the severity is men􀀯oned. Thus one
    accumulates Punya by offering food to a hungry, digging a well,
    plan􀀡ng a tree, worshipping a cow construc􀀯ng Dharam Shala
    etc and similarly one gets Pap who causes injury to other,
    destroys the temples and public places, deceives some one else,
    destroys the liveihood of widows and helpless etc.
    According to Dr. Madhukar Ashthikar the concept of
    Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap (nmn) served great purpose from social
    work point of view. The inten􀀯on behind the concepts was to
    channelise the human energy for construc􀀯ve work for the
    welfare of the society. Because Punya (nwÊ`) is a􀁉ached to good
    deeds, people made efforts in performing them and because
    Pap (nmn) is a􀁉ached to wrong deeds, people avoided causing
    injury or ill feeling to others. These two, served the purpose of
    social control and at the same 􀀯me helped in development and
    growth of the society. Naturally, the common people got
    a􀁉racted towards social welfare.
    Prof. Wadia notes “Even if they (good acts like charity)
    have been inspired by a desire for reward (Punya) in the life to
    come, let us not forget the immiediate good they have tended to
    produce.”18
    But the Hindu Seers envisaged s􀀯ll higher standard for
    the individual. To be one with the God (i.e. final “Moksha”) one
    has to forget the ego feeling of “I am the doer” and undertake
    good deeds with non-a􀁉achment, which at the end will help to
    renunciate every thing including the desire to get rewarded for a
    good deed.
    74
    Bhagavad Gita urges the people to undertake good
    deeds without looking at the reward part of it (_m H$_© \$b hoVw ^ym§ Vo
    g§J>mo ñËdH$_©{U && ^JdX² JrVm 2/47). It elaborates “One who
    undertakes good deeds with the desire of “reward” and who
    considers heaven as the final abode, they are ignorant and speak
    only hypocra􀀯c language (`m{__m§ nw{f²nVm§ dmM§ àdXÝË`{dnpúMV: & doX
    dmXaVm: nmW© ZmÝ`XñVr{V nm{XZ: && H$m_mË_Z: ñdJ©de OÝ_H$_© \$bàXm_²&
    {H«$`m{deof~hþH$m§ ^moJ¡úM`© J{V à{V && ^JdX²JrVm 2/42 & 43). And this is
    the Nishkama Karma Yoga of Bagavad Gita. A Yogi traverses
    beyond the Punya Phala of Veda, Yajna and Daan to reach the
    God and never to return to the life-cycle (doXofw `kofw Vn: gw M¡d XmZofw
    `ËnwÊ`\$b§ à{Xï>_² AË`o{V VËgd©{_X§ {d{XËdm `moJr na§ ñ`mZ_wd¡{V MmÚ_² &&
    ^JdX² JrVm 8/28). Further, a charity or Danam considered as
    obligatory duty without desiring the Punya in return is of highest
    order while a Danam with an eye on its Punya Phala is of
    secondary grade. Similarly Bhagavad Gita men􀀯ons Satvik
    Karma as the highest order of performing good deeds, which are
    to be undertaken, forgoing the ego and desire for the Phala or
    reward. ({Z`V§ g½S>a{hV _amJ ÛofV: H¥$V_²& A\$bàßgwZm H$_© `Îmgm{ËdH$
    _wÀ`Vo && ^JdX² JrVm 18/23).
    Thus in short, a good ac􀀯on with the inten􀀯on of gaining
    in return something as reward, say Punya is looked down upon
    and hence a good ac􀀯on like plan􀀯ng of tree – eventhough Punya
    is a􀁉ached to it – has to be undertaken in the spirit of nona
    􀁉achment, considered as one’s duty. The Hindu philosophy
    draws the picture in which the Punya is guaranteed for all good
    ac􀀯ons undertaken for the benefit of other but the desire to gain
    Punya should never be kept in the mind. It urges to rise even
    above Punya desire, in undertaking ac􀀯vi􀀯es for the welfare of
    the society.
    Dharma – The underlying principle of Social Work
    Dharma is the principle which upholds the society and
    75
    help in its total welfare and progress. Dharma is binding on all
    including the State or king.
    The ancient literature men􀀯ons that it is the Dharma of
    the king to construct public places, to dig wells and ponds, to
    plant and maintain trees. It is again held as the Dharma of the
    king to look a􀁔er the old, the sick, the orphan, the widows etc.
    Similarly when individual takes care of his old parents and other
    dependants, it is held to be his Dharma. A householder must
    feed the dog, the chandala (untounchable) the fish etc. as it is his
    Dharma. It is Dharma which inspires the rich to donate money to
    the poor and it is Dharma of a teacher not to teach for the sake of
    fees. It is against Dharma to cause injury to other or hurt their
    feelings and also to steal other’s wealth. It goes against Dharma to
    be greedy and selfish and to eat food without sharing with others.
    All these and many more ac􀀯vi􀀯es intended towards the
    welfare of all are clubbed to be under the big principle of
    Dharma. Beyond this, Dharma is more comprehensive concept
    to be covered fully under the purview of social work. But in short,
    whatever ac􀀯ons, obligatory as well as voluntary, undertaken
    with the view of the welfare of all, falls under the wider concept
    of Dharma which can be seen as the underlying principle behind
    such ac􀀯vi􀀯es. Above all, the Hindu Shastrakaras urge all to lead
    the Dharma life as it is equally important to speaking of Truth
    (gË`§ dX Y_© Ma & V¡Îmar` Cn{ZfX²).
    Shri Narada Rishi explains to Shuk Dev Rishi “In my
    opinion whatever is for the greatest welfare of all creatures is the
    final truth (`X² ^yV{hV_Ë`ÝV_mVoV² gË` _V§ __ && _hm^maV em§Vrnd©
    329/13). Lastly, the Svayambhuva Brahma created Dharma only
    for the welfare of all. (à^mdmW© hr ^yVmZm§ Y_© g¥îQ>: ñd`§^wdm && _hm^maV
    em§{Vnd© 89/18).
    Bases of Purushartha
    The four fold aims kept in front of a Hindu, namely
    76
    Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha (Y_©-AW©-H$m_-_moj) helped
    in moulding the mental frame work of the individual to strive for
    societal good.
    As these are the goals, every ac􀀯vity of the individual
    centered around achieving these goals. Through this the
    spiritual as well as the materialis􀀯c welfare of the individual and
    the society have been envisaged.
    Hindu seers envisaged wealth and properity as well as
    enjoyment of all desires to be based upon the Dharma and to be
    leading towards Moksha. Dharma, the righteous path
    concerned with the welfare of all – has to be the medium to
    achieve Arth and Kama. It implies that even while striving for
    wealth and enjoying the desires, the individual must look at the
    welfare of others. As an example, the marriage is considered as a
    sacrament, essen􀀯ally not for just passion but to propogate the
    species for the benefit of the society and to repay the Pitri Rina.
    Bhagavad Gita and Social Work
    Let us consider the view point of M. V. Moorthy while
    discussing as to what should be the moving spirit for modern
    Social Work, especially when it is noted that profession of Social
    Work envisages remunera􀀯on to the social worker.
    M. V. Murthy writes “one should clarify to one self and to
    other, the ul􀀯mate purpose of his profession, so that one will not
    be blind prac􀀯􀀯oner nor a professional who is suspect. Let us
    consider the worst instances to bring home the point. A
    pros􀀯tute is within her rights if she says she prac􀀯ses in order to
    make money, to make as much money as she can, making money
    alone being her aim, the rest of the aims, if there are any, being
    secondary. An actor or a dancer or a boxer may get off by
    declaring his inten􀀯on of becoming a mul􀀯millionaire through
    the prac􀀯ce of his profession. The world has recognised the
    purposes of these and looks on those who do not get rich by this
    profession as either mediocres or failures. But take a doctor who
    77
    owns that the purpose of his prac􀀯ce is to obtain from his
    pa􀀯ents as much money as he can and to get rich as quickly as he
    can, making money being his main aim! Even a fool or villain of
    doctor will keep such inten􀀯ons to himself. The doctor is not
    permi􀁉ed to weigh his skill against his pa􀀯ent’s pocket. In other
    words, it is theore􀀯cally unthinkable of a doctor refusing to treat
    a pa􀀯ent who has no money, though this may be happening
    around us. The society expects that the social worker and the
    doctor keep other aims than money as the moving spirit of the
    profession.”19
    Now let us turn to what Bhagvad Gita has to say in this
    regard.
    Bhagavad Gita calls upon to do the work in Satvik
    (gm{ËdH$)) way and to emulate to be a Satvik worker. Satvik
    (gm{ËdH$) work is that one, which is perfectly based on norms
    governing it, undertaken without looking at the reward, devoid
    of ego feeling and without anger or passion ({Z`V§ g§Ja{hV_amJìXofV:
    H¥$V_² & A\$b àoßgwZm H$_© `ÎmgmpËdH$_À`Vo && ^JdX² JrVm 18/23). It
    implies that the best way of doing any work in general and
    par􀀯cularly work devoted for the welfare of the society, is to do
    without looking into the remunera􀀯on part of reward, in return
    The Social Work should not be based upon the capacity of the
    client to pay.
    Moreover, the principle of controlled emo􀀯onal feelings
    has to be strictly followed or the work should never be on the
    basis of passion or undertaken with anger in mind. In other
    words, a client who is able to pay more, need not be given
    preference or special love and a poor client should never be
    dealt with any difference, or unwillingness in the mind. A person
    who sees God in all can never discriminate any living creature,
    neither among human beings on the basis of wealth and poverty,
    or caste and creed. (AÛoîQ>m gd© ^yVmZm§ _¡Ì: H$éU Ed M& ^JdX² JrVm
    78
    12/13, {Zd}a: gd©^yVofw& 11/55, g_moh§ gd© ^yVofw.. 9/29 etc). The Satvik
    worker is he who is non-a􀁉ached (to the reward), using egoless
    language and doing the work to see it prefectly completed with
    all his vigour and energy and who neither get depressed in its
    failure nor become over joyous in its success. (_wŠV gL²>JmoS>©Z h§ dmXr
    Y«Ë`yËgmhg_m{ZdV: & {gÕ`{gÕ`mo{Z© {dH$ma: H$Vm© gmpËdH$ CÀ`Vo && JrVm
    18/26).
    A Satvik worker will never leave his work incomplete but
    will apply all energy to make the work successful. Nona
    􀁉achment or non-caring about the reward, does not make the
    worker disinterested in his work rather he applies all his vigour
    consciously and he knows that for every good deed, there is
    defenitely a reward a􀁉ached to it. Morever the Satvik worker
    possesses self-control and self-mo􀀯va􀀯on quali􀀯es in him. A
    non-a􀁉ached person undertakes his du􀀯es in the interest of the
    welfare of the society. (Hw$`m©{ÛÛm§ñV`mgŠV{ldH$s~w©bmoH$g§J«mh_² && ^JdX²
    JrVm 3/25).
    To sum it up, the social worker should never consider the
    reward or remunera􀀯on as criterion to help others, for reward
    follows naturally for every good deed and he must use his
    maximum capacity, skill and knowledge without any
    discrimina􀀯on among his clients, shunning away the egois􀀯c
    feeling, without ge􀁏ng depressed or over jayous, self
    controlled, and considering welfare of other as the moving spirit
    behind his work.
    Principle of Self-Salva􀀡on through Service
    Swami Vivekananda, the great Hindu monk, holds a high
    place in the spiritual history of Hinduism. His contribu􀀯on to
    Hindu spiritualism is well known and at the same 􀀯me his
    yearning for service of the poor and the downtrodden can never
    be forgo􀁉en easily. In fact he integrated spiritualism and service
    to the society, wonderfully and proved through his thought
    79
    provoking speeches and self-less deeds that both the two –
    spiritulaism and service – are not opposed to each other.
    He says “Seeing the poor people of our country starving
    for food, a desire comes to me to overthrow all ceremonial
    worship and learning and go round from village to village in
    serving the poor”.20
    In 1880’s, Swami Vivekananda made efforts to construct
    the famous Belur Math and the establishment of Ramakrishna
    Mission. During this period, Swamiji thought of having Feeding
    Homes for the poor, health clinics for the sick, shelter for the old
    etc and inspired his disciples to undertake work in these
    direc􀀯ons through out the country. At the establishment of the
    mission, Swami addressed the disciples “The real aim of Sanyasa
    is -(AmË_Zmo _mojmW© OJV {hVm` M) For the highest freedom of the
    self and the good of the world. Arise awake and stop not 􀀯ll the
    goal is reached”.21 Vivekananda found no clash in seeking
    Moksha i.e. final libera􀀯on and the service to the society.
    According to him every Sanyasin must strive for the welfare of
    the society through helping the down trodden and the people in
    distress. The mo􀁉o of the mission itself is kept as “AmË_Zmo _mojmW©
    OJV {hVm` M”. And the contribu􀀯on of the mission in the field of
    social work and spiritualism is well known.
    In fact, Swami Vivekananda gave expression to the age
    old principle of Hindu spirituality. Hindu philosophy, ordains to
    take care of the old, the servants, the guests, the animals and
    birds and it urges all to undertake ac􀀯vi􀀯es like of digging of well,
    plan􀀯ng of streets, providing street lights etc. for the benefit of
    others. All these, brought the man nearer to the God and his life
    ambi􀀯on of Moksha (_moj) was made easy, through such
    ac􀀯vi􀀯es. Further, many of such ac􀀯vi􀀯es were termed as his
    Dharma-duty and there was no escape from one’s duty as
    Moksha is not a􀁉ainable for a non-doer of the du􀀯es. Thus, it
    becomes clear that the principle of self-salva􀀯on through service
    80
    (AmË_Zmo _mojmWª OJV {hVm` M) was an important philosophical base
    of ancient Social Work.
    Observa􀀡ons on the Special Charateris􀀡cs of Ancient Social
    Work
    The author would like to draw some observa􀀯ons on the
    nature and characteris􀀯cs of Ancient Social Work.
    Wholis􀀡c Approach
    The ancient Hindu literature conveys a wholis􀀯c and
    comphrehensive approach towards Social Work in many counts.
    Firstly, the welfare saught is not only of the mankind but also of
    all living creatures. This becomes clear from the prayers and
    prac􀀯ces enshrined in the ancient literature. For example, a
    prayer is offered by the newly wedded bride entering into her
    house. “Let you be not killed O! Shakuna bird, by the arrow of the
    hunter, Let there be no difficulty for you from any direc􀀯on. You
    sing in all direc􀀯ons for our welfare etc.” (gw §Jbü eHw$Zo
    ^d{g_mËdmH$m{MX^©^{dî`{d{XV²… eHw$Zo ^Ð_mdX{dúdVmoZ: …. ^Ð_ñ_mH$
    ZmodX ^Ч Zmo A^`§ H¥${Y…. F$½doX 2/42/1, 2/43/1 to 4).
    The house holder has a duty towards the animals and
    birds, as to feed them and to take care of them and to save them
    even if he has to loose his life. The individual must plant trees and
    look a􀁔er them like his own children. Again the respect and
    venera􀀯on shown towards trees, rivers and mountain, speak of
    the ecological concern and care of environment in the ancient
    Hindu literature.
    Secondly, the welfare sought for was not only of the
    materialis􀀯c welfare but also of mental and spiritual well – being.
    The Hindu Seers rightly understood the short comings of the
    materialis􀀯c welfare in making the individual happy and
    contended. They envisaged emo􀀯onal as well as spiritual up li􀁔
    to round up the welfare aspect into a comprehensive one. A
    delicate and prac􀀯cal balancing of all the three aspects had its
    81
    impact in contribu􀀯ng to peace and stability to the individual,
    family and the society at large. It is a wrong no􀀯on to presume
    that Hindu philosophy advocated solely the spiritualis􀀯c
    welfare, devoid of materialis􀀯c welfare and that there is concern
    only of the other world, forge􀁏ng the difficul􀀯es and problems
    of this living world. Had this been true, then the taxa􀀯on policy
    for the benefit of the poor, digging of wells and ponds, holding of
    Social Fes􀀯vals, etc. by the State would have been something
    different as conceived in the ancient literature.
    Moreover, the Artha (wealth and prosperity) and the
    Kama (desire or passion) are kept as the goals for every
    individual, under Purushartha. Again, the approach was unique
    in the sense that concern was not limited, only to the poor and
    the weak or only to the sick and the old or the handicapped and
    the distress. Ofcourse, they being recognised as weaker sec􀀯ons
    received special concern and societal care. On the other hand, a
    guest (A􀀯thi) coming to house was offered hospitality not
    because he is a poor traveller, having nothing to eat. A student
    (Bahmcharin) was offered alms, not because he came from a
    poor family. Plan􀀯ng of trees or digging of wells were not meant
    only for the poor. Rather, the approach to these ac􀀯vi􀀯es was
    duty bound and development oriented. In other words, showing
    due care to the poor and the weak, ancient literature visualised a
    broad based approach to Social Work ac􀀯vi􀀯es.
    Dignity and Respect for All
    As a corollary to the earlier point, one can observe
    dignity and respect for all in the ancient Social Work approach. A
    stranger coming to the house is treated like God. He is never
    looked down upon, rather his comfort becomes the main
    concern of the family. Similary, the concept of Danam tells us
    how with all dignity, the needy is to be provided with alms. The
    needy, the beggar so to say, is to be provided with alms before his
    asking for it and with kind and sweet words. The principles of
    82
    Seeing of God in all and Seeing of self in all can never teach the
    individual to show indignity to other how-so-ever small, he may
    be. These two principles helped the individual to help others on
    equal foo􀀯ng or more and not with degrada􀀯on of
    discrimina􀀯on.
    Reciprocal Responsibility and Mutual Help
    The ancient literature ordains that the Brahmachari
    (Student) must beg alms and live on it. At the same 􀀯me the
    Grihastha (house holder) must give alms to the student. The
    student in turn must repay this debt by helping the society when
    he grows up and takes up the next Ashrama of the house-holder.
    The old and the sick were taken care of by the family and the
    ancient literature advocates the individual not to run away from
    the responsibility of the family.
    The society through Varna-Ashrama system took care of
    the individual who in trun, undergoing the various Samskaras
    strived to be useful to the society. The teacher was expected not
    to teach for fees and the student in turn served him by staying
    with him. Through Yajna the community of mankind helped the
    second community, that of Gods and the community of Gods
    always was ready to help the manking. (XodmÝ^md` VmZoZ Xodm ^md`ÝVw
    d: & nañna§ ^md`ÝV: lo`: na_dmßñ“ && ^JdX² JrVm 3/11).
    All these are the examples and pointers towards the
    mutual help and reciprocal responsibility conceved in the
    ancient literature with regard to the nature of ancient Social
    Work.
    Peculiar Built-in mechanisms of Rehabilita􀀡on
    Ancient literature contains passages men􀀯oning
    par􀀯cular ways of rehabilita􀀯ng the less privileged people. An
    example is that of widow rehabilita􀀯on.
    “The Rig Veda and Atharva Veda allude widow remarriage
    to the brother of the deceased husband. The brother
    83
    accepts her hand and urges her to rise up from the funeral pyre
    to lead a prosperows life with new children and wealth.”22
    Manu proclaims that the younger brother of the
    deceased pf a distant rela􀀯ve of the same Gotra can marry the
    widow, who is without issues to look a􀁔er her (Vm_ZoZ {dÚmZoZ {ZOmo
    {dÝXoV Xoda: & 9/69).
    Manu further says “such person should apply Ghee on
    his body and without u􀁉ering any word should meet the widow
    to beget only one son and not more” ({dYdm`m§ {Z`wŠVñVw K¥VmŠVmo
    dm½`Vmo {Z{e& EH$_wËnmX`oËnw̧ Z {ÛVr` H$`§MZ && _Zwñ_¥{V 9/190). Such a
    child inherits the property of the deceased father.
    (g§pñ`Vñ`mZdË`ñ` gJmoÌmËnyÌ_mhaoV² & VÌ `{X«Š`OmV§ ñ`mÎmÎm{e_ÝÐ{Ð`mX`oV²
    && _Zwñ_¥{V 9/190). The Naradiya Manu Smru􀀯 (8/80 to 89); Vishnu
    Smru􀀯 (25); Yajana Valkya Smru􀀯 (1/68); Vashishlths Smru􀀯
    (27/49) also deals with same topic.
    Here, the helpless widow is rehabilitated by the peculiar
    way of bege􀁏ng son from the younger brother or a distant
    rela􀀯ve. The condi􀀯ons of applying Ghee on the body and nontalking
    brings out the fact that it is not sexual enjoyment that is
    intended but the inten􀀯on is of rehabilita􀀯ng the widow. Again,
    only one son needs to be bege􀁉ed; who becomes the heir of his
    father’s property, just like his own son. thus the widow never
    required out – side help like a widow-rehabilita􀀯on agency of
    modern 􀀯mes, rather the family and the kinship (same Gotra)
    came to her rescue with the most prac􀀯cal solu􀀯on available in
    those days. This kind of inbuilt mechanisms were developed for
    the rehabilita􀀯on of less privileged.
    References :
    1. BANERJEE G. R. : “Papers on Social Work-An Indian Perspec􀀯ve
    “Tata Ins􀀯tute of Social Sciences, Bombay, Page 59.
    2. WADIA A. R. : “Ethical and Spiritual values in Social Work”
    84
    “Social work in India” (edited by Wadia A.R.) Allied Publishers
    Pvt. Ltd., Bombay 1961, Page 15.
    3. WADIA A. R. : “Ethical and Spirtual Values in the Prac􀀯ce of
    Social Work” “History and Philosophy of Social Work in India”
    (edited by Wadia A. R.) Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Bombay;
    1961. Page 7.
    4. MCKAY ANGUS : “Charity And the Welfare State”
    “Philosophy in Social Work” (edited by Timms N and Watson
    D) Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1978. Page 78 to 83.
    5. SHASTRI RAJA RAM : “Samaj Karya”, Hindi Sami􀀯, Lucknow,
    1970. Page 3.
    6. KANE P. V. : “History of Dharma Shastra” Vol. 1, Bhandarkar
    Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute, Pune, Page 1.
    7. RADHAKRISHNAN S. : “Religion and Society” George Allen
    and Unwin Ltd., London, 1948. Page 107.
    8. SINHA (DR.) S. N. : “The Concept of Dharma in Valmiki
    Ramayana”, Manoharlal Publica􀀯ons, New Delhi. 1965.
    Page 39.
    9. RADHAKRISHNAN (DR.) S. : Op. cit. Page 107.
    10. SWAMI VIRESWARANANDA : “The Bhagawad Gita – its
    Synthe􀀯c Character” Cultural Heritage of India (edited by Dr.
    S. Radhakrishnan) Vol. II, the Ramakrishna Mission Ins􀀯tute
    of Culture, Calcu􀁉a 1975. Page 182.
    11. SATWALEKAR S. D. : “Atharva Veda”, Vol. I, Swadhyaya
    Mandal, Satara, 1925. Page 183.
    12. SATWALEKAR S. D. : Ibid Page 100.
    13. BANERJEE G. R. : “Papers on Social Work – an Indian
    Perspec􀀯ve”, Tata Ins􀀯tute of Social Science, Bombay. Page
    11.
    14. SHASTRI R. R. : Op. cit. Page 2 to 3.
    * Based on intervies with Dr. Nanasaheb Pimplapure on
    10/12/93 and Dr. K. R. Joshi 12/12/93.
    85
    15. ASHTIKAR M. : “Latyayana – Srauta” Sukhada Prakashan,
    Nagpur 1993, Page 20/21.
    16. JOSHI MAHADEV SHASTRI : “Bharateeya Samskru􀀯 Kosh”
    “Maharashtra Government Board of Literature and Culture”
    Vol. IX, Pune. Page 292.
    17. JOSHI MAHADEV SHASTRI : Ibid page 141.
    18. KANE P. V. : “History of Dharma Shastras” Vol. II,
    Bhandarkar Oriental Research Ins􀀯tute, Pune. 1935. Page
    746.
    19. KANE P. V. : Ibid page 698.
    * Based on the interview with Dr. Madhukar Ashthikar on
    06/12/93.
    20. WADIA A. R. : “Ethical and Spiritual Values in the Prac􀀯ce of
    Social Work” “Social work in India” (edited by Wadia A. R.)
    Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Bombay, 1961. Page 7.
    21. MURTHY M. V. : “Philosophy of Social Work of Changing
    India”, “Social Work Educa􀀯on and Social Work Prac􀀯ce in
    India”, (edited by Nair T. K.) Associa􀀯on of Schools of Social
    Work in India, Madras, 1981. Page 40).
    22. SWAMI SWANANDA (Compiler) : “Talks with Swami
    Vivekananda” Advaita Ashram, Culcu􀁉a. 1990 page 373.
    23. 22. SWAMI SWANANDA (Compiler) : Ibid page 94.
    24. CHAKRAVORTY H. : “Socio-Economic Life of India In The
    Vedic Period” Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Calcu􀁉a. 1986. Page
    149/152.
      
    86
    Chapter IV
    SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL
    AS MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY
    An individual human being has no significant separate
    existence but is the product of a complex and elaborate system
    of interac􀀛on with other individuals.1 Importance or the
    interdependence between individual human being and society
    is well known from the fact that society can not be imagined to
    exist without individuals and vice versa. A good society, in the
    sense where harmonious social rela􀀛ons exist, is the final
    product of contribu􀀛ons of each individual members of the
    society. Further, this becomes possible when the individual gets
    trained or socialised through interac􀀛on with others in the
    society and the family, being the basic primary group, is mainly
    responsibility towards society, un􀀛l and unless an a􀀢tude and
    ap􀀛tude to do service to other, developed in him.
    This task lies on the family which in turn gets moulded by the
    social forces of interac􀀛ons in society at large. Terming family as
    an instrument and agent of the larger society, Good writes, “The
    family contributes these services to the society; reproduc􀀛on of
    the young, physical maintainence of family members, social
    placement of the child, socializa􀀛on and social control. The
    family is also charged with social arrangements having to do”.2
    This chapter is devoted to analyse the posi􀀛on of individual
    in the family, contribu􀀛ons of the family towards social good,
    and concern of the society for the family and the individual etc as
    conceived in ancient Hindu literature. The author also a􀀫empts
    to bring out the bases that governed social interac􀀛on and social
    rela􀀛ons in the ancient Hindu society and the individuals
    responsibility, to undertake social work ac􀀛vi􀀛es as a member of
    the society.
    87
    Special Rela􀀡ons
    Generally speaking, the study of Social Rela􀀛ons is limited to
    the probing and interpre􀀛ng the rela􀀛ons between man and
    man in the society. The Hindu scholars of ancient 􀀛mes envisage
    a much wider rela􀀛on which covers his rela􀀛on with the animate
    and inanimate things in the whole universe. It is a false no􀀛on
    that ancient Hindu society was individulas􀀛c society w h e r e
    every individual is concerned about his selfish Moksha
    (salva􀀛on), rather the libera􀀛on was made possible for him only
    when he fulfilled his obligatory du􀀛es to the family, to the
    society and to the universe at large. And the obligatory du􀀛es
    were welfare oriented, with the prime concern for others’ wellbeing
    even at the cost of sacrificing the self itself. Non fulfilment
    of his du􀀛es, made him to take re-birth (Punarjanma) and
    causing injury to any creature, by thoughts, words or deeds
    rendered him unqualified for final libera􀀛on. This works as the
    frame work for Hindu Social Rela􀀛ons.
    Hindu approach to Social rela􀀛on is much deeper and begins
    from the fundamental ques􀀛on of the significance of man’s
    existence on earth which enables him to be at the service of
    others. For him, God dwells in all, and service to other is service
    to God which ul􀀛mately leads him for his life’s ambi􀀛on of
    a􀀫aining Moksha (Libera􀀛on).
    Principle of Seeing God-in-All
    Seeing God-in-all is a basic principle of Hindu philosophy
    which rendered social rela􀀛on invaluable and sacred.
    Yajurveda declares “whatever animate and inanimate things
    exist in the whole universe, it is all pervaded by God” (B©em dmí` {_X§
    / gd© `pËH$Ëd OJË`m§ OJV² `Owd}X & 40/1 also Bí`mdmemon{ZfX 1).
    Mahabharat, proclaims “God dwells in all, in the whole
    Universe (g {h gd}fw ^yVofw OJ_ofw Y¥dofwM&& dgË`oH$mo _hmZmÝ_m `oZ gd©rX
    VV_² && em§{V nd© & 239/20). Krishana says “One who sees me in
    88
    everything and everything in me. I can never loose him”. (`mo _m§
    ní`{V gd©Ì gdª M _{` ní`{V & Vñ`mh§ Z àUí`m{_ g M _o Z àUí`{V && ^JdX²JrVm
    6/30). Krishna further elaborates “one who serves all by seeing
    me in all creatures, a􀀫ains Me” (gd© ^yVmpñWV§ `mo _m§ ^OË`oH$Ëd_mpñ`V:
    && ^JdX²JrVm 6/31) because the whole world is made up of nothing
    but me” (_Îm: naVa ZmË`{H$V{MXpñV YZ§O` & _{` gd©{_X§ àmoV§ gyÌo _{UJUm
    Bd&& ^JdX²JrVm 7/7).
    Seeing Self in All
    Seeing God in all, helps the individual to see self-in-all. This
    further prepares him to accept other’s difficul􀀛es as his own and
    to see his happiness lying in other’s happiness.
    Krishna says “one who sees self in all and all-in-self, a􀀫ains
    the quality of g_Xe©Z (impar􀀛al viewing) (gd© ^yVñ`_mË_mZ gd© ^yVm{Z
    MmË_m{Z & B©jVo `moJ`wŠVmË_m gd©Ì g_Xe©Z: && ^JdX²JrVm 6/29). and such a
    person looks equally and without discrimina􀀛on at Brahmin,
    cow elephant, dog and untouchable ({dÚm{dZ`g§nÞo ~«mh² Uo
    J{dhpñV{Z & ew{Z M¡d ídnmHo$ M npÊS>Vm: g_X{e©Z: && ^JdX²JrVm 5/18). It
    implies that oneness with other and equality in rela􀀛on is to be
    a􀀫ained which in turn, will help the individual serve others in a
    be􀀫er manner. Krishna calls upon all to discard discriminatory
    out look and praises the person who does not discriminate
    among a selfless friend, a known person, a well wisher an
    indifferent, a hos􀀛le, an enemy, a rela􀀛ve, a noble and a sinner.
    (_whpÝ_Ìm`w©XmgrZ_Ü` ñ` Ûoî`~ÝYwfw & gmYwîd{n M nmnofw g_~w{Õ{d©{eî`Vo&&
    ^JdX²JrVm 6/9).
    Krishna further proclaims, “he is my real devotee who
    discard enemity with all creatures and become self-less friend
    with full of sympathy” (AÛoï>m gd©^yVmZm§ _¡Ì: H$éU Ed M && ^JdX²JrVm
    12/12) “he a􀀫ains me who is engrossed in the welfare of all and
    sees all without discrimina􀀛on”. (gd©Ì gX~wÕ`: & Vo àmßZwdpÝV _m_od
    gd©^yV{hVo aVm: && ^JdX²JrVm 12/4).
    The most important aspect of Indian philosophy is the Unity
    89
    of Soul, of which the above two principles are the corrollary
    principles. The four Major Texts, termed as the Mahavakya
    (_hmdmŠ`) in Sanskrit language are the bases of the concept of
    Unity of Soul. The texts are àkmZ§ ~«÷ (F$½doX), A`_mË_m ~«÷
    (AWd©doX), VËd_{g (gm_doX), Ah§ ~«÷mpñ_ (`Owd}X). All these point to
    the principle that whatever exist in the Universe is nothing but
    Brahma. (gd© IbwqdX ~«÷). *
    P. V. Kane writes “The reason given for such virtues as daya
    (X`m), ahimsa (Aqhgm) is based upon the philosophical doctrine
    of the One Self being imminent in every individual.”3
    All this implies that the Social Rela􀀛on of the Hindu is defined
    by his rela􀀛on with the ul􀀛mate – God. For him to worship others
    is like worship to God and worshipping others leads to respec􀀛ng
    of others which in turn leads to self-less service to others.
    Worshipping never means a mere ritualis􀀛c worship rather it is
    complete change of a􀀢tude in the out look towards others to
    make them happy and to up-hold others welfare first. Seeing self
    in all helps the Hindu mind to feel the difficul􀀛es of others and
    such a person can never desist himself from service to others.
    Thus these two principles of seeing God in all and seeing-self-in
    all, helps the Hindu individual to live an ideal social life with the
    best-possible Social Rela􀀛ons.
    Dr. Radhakrishnan is fully jus􀀛fied when he says “Hindu
    moral and ethical values moulds him into a perfect Social being
    who takes up the challenge of service to the society.”4
    Individual, the Family and the Society
    A study of Social Rela􀀛ons ought to be undertaken only with
    reference to the elements involved namely the individual, the
    family and the society. The family is the basic primary group in
    which the individual learns the lores of the society, termed as the
    secondary group or larger group in which the individual lives
    under the network of social rela􀀛ons. Which one of these
    elements, is more significant is irrelevant as the final web of
    90
    social rela􀀛ons is cons􀀛tuted by the give and take behaviour of
    all the three.
    Hindu philosophy narrates a beau􀀛ful and delicate
    combina􀀛on of the three, that they act and behave
    complimentary and supplementary among each other. The
    interests and wishes of the three are never at cross roads, rather
    the aims are synchronised in unique manner leaving no room for
    any fric􀀛on. Hindu individual always strives for the be􀀫erment
    of the family and the society, by making efforts to fulfill all his
    obligatory du􀀛es rather than thinking of his rights. As a corollary,
    the family and the society provides the best suitable
    environment for the individuals development and for a􀀫aining
    final goal Moksha or libera􀀛on.
    Hindu Seers ordained Dharma (Y_©), Artha (AW©), Kama
    (H$m_), Moksha (_moj) as the four goals for the individual to
    strive for and the family was envisaged as the mechanism to
    produce a social being through various Samskaras or
    sacraments while the society backed up the family with the
    unique system of Varna and Asharma. While the Dharma-Arth-
    Kama-Moksha provided necessary direc􀀛on to the basic
    ques􀀛on of the purpose of man’s existence, the necessary in-put
    was provided by the family through sacraments and the society
    provided the necessary system of Varna-Ashrama for a􀀫aining
    the life’s ambi􀀛on (i.e. Moksha) of the Hindu Individual. As a
    result, the best of social rela􀀛ons existed and the society could
    grow and flourish for thousands of years.
    Dharma-Artha-Kama-Moksha (Y_©-AW©-H$m_-_moj)
    The English transla􀀛on of Dharma-Artha-Kama-Moksha
    (Y_©-AW©-H$m_-_moj) can be done by the words, morality,
    wealth, passion or desire, and salva􀀛on or libera􀀛on
    respec􀀛vely but the Sanskrit terms have more poten􀀛ality with
    deeper meaning than these English words can singly convey. An
    in depth discussion becomes essen􀀛al to bring out the meaning
    91
    of these words and their role in Social Rela􀀛on. P. V. Kane notes
    “Another reason for cul􀀛va􀀛ng high moral quali􀀛es is found in
    the doctrine of the goals or ends of human existence. From very
    ancient 􀀛mes they are said to be four. (Chaturvidha
    Purushartha).5
    Dharma (Y_©)
    Dharma is of great significance in Hindu Philosophy and also
    plays a major role in understanding the ancient Social Work
    ideology in India. Dharma is derived from the Sanskrit root
    “Dhru” (Y¥) meaning to sustain, to nourish to uphold. The
    principles which one has to observe in the daily life and in social
    rela􀀛ons are cons􀀛tuted by the term Dharma. “Under the
    concept Dharma, the Hindu brings the forms and ac􀀛vi􀀛es
    which shape and sustain human life. We have diverse interests,
    various desires, conflic􀀛ng needs which grow and change in the
    growing. To round them off into a whole is the purpose of
    Dharma”.6
    Dharma is the wider principle with which one individual
    interact with other individuals, with the family and the society
    and his rela􀀛on with all is governed by Dharma. To sum up, the
    importance of Dharma with regard to Social Rela􀀛on, in the
    words of Manu the law giver, “One get destroyed by destroying
    Dharma and Dharma rescues one who strives for through out his
    life. (8/15)
    Arth and Kama (AW©-H$m_)
    Artha and Kama refer to two of man’s earthly belongings and
    are termed as the objec􀀛ves in individual’s life. The wealth and
    passion are given due importance in the Hindu life and it is a
    wrong no􀀛on to believe that the prosperity and the passion are
    always condemned. But neverthless, these two never rendered
    the individual to be selfish and greedy as the means of a􀀫aining,
    than the ends, were emphasised which are to be based upon
    “Dharma” or righteousness. Hindu Seers rightly understood the
    92
    importance of Artha and Kama in individuals life and regarded
    them as “Punya purushartha” (aims of a virtuous person) but
    kept them in between Dharma (morality) and Moksha
    (Salva􀀛on) by sugges􀀛ng the correct ways and means, 􀀛me and
    place of enjoying Artha (prosperity) and Kama (Passion).
    Shri S. D. Satwalekar and eminent authority on Vedic
    Civilisa􀀛on, quo􀀛ng (Ëd {doeñ` YZXm A{g&& F$½doX 7/32/17; d¥fm
    Mm|X`ñd _S>Vo YZm`² && F$½doX 1/104/7 and gw{damgmo d`§ YZm O`om& F$½doX
    9/61/23) writes “Like these, there are lot of mantras which
    advise to make efforts for wealth and prosperity. Vedas never
    advocate to reject wealth and to live in poverty. But righ􀁎ul
    means must be adopted to become wealthy, and then one
    should not be a slave of money, by prac􀀛sing non-a􀀫achment
    a􀀢tude. This is what Vedas preach”.7 Atharva Veda says “let the
    people not call me as poor” (OZmg: _m AmeYg _m dmoMZ² 5/11/8).
    Rig Veda proclaims “Those who save money as well as
    donate money generously, are protected by soma” (lrUm_wXmamo
    YéUmo a`rUm§ _Zr{fUm§ àn©U gmo Jmonm: & F$½doX 10/45/5) but ordains to
    use the wealth (for dona􀀛ng and helping the poor (aq` gd©dra
    XYmVZ && F$½doX 10/15/11 and Cvmo a{` d¥UVmo Zmo nXñ`Ë`Vm@ n¥UÝ_{S>Vma Z
    {dÝXVo && F$½doX 10/117/1).
    Dr. Radhakrishnan says “We are required to make every
    par􀀛cle of dust into sweet honey” (11/98/7) implying that there
    should be sincere effort to be rich and prosperous8.
    Manu urges “Make all out effort to increase wealth
    righteously, based on Dharma” (9/333). and the same view is
    expressed in Mahabharat. Whatever money is earned
    righteously whatever money is increased righteously, all should
    be saved with all efforts, for the purpose of “Dharma” (service
    unto others) (292/4). It further says “Money must be donated to
    those who beg it; and used for protec􀀛ng parents, for feeding
    wife and children and for ge􀀢ng treatment for a chronic
    93
    disease” (23/56) and it advices always to share wealth for
    feeding guests and all creatures (66/11)
    Regarding wealth u􀀛lisa􀀛on Mahabharat says “The house
    holder should divide his wealth into three parts, with one part he
    should a􀀫ain Dharma (to be used for service unto others), with
    another he should have the objects of desire and the remainder
    should be increased”.9
    As it is evident from the above discussion, the Hindu
    Philosophers never condemned becoming wealthy but ordained
    to raise money righteously and to u􀀛lise it for service unto
    others. This a􀀢tude behind “Wealth and prosperity” can never
    turn the individual to be selfish or greedy. Further, during raising
    and saving of money, the concern of the individual is not the self
    but others and this defines his rela􀀛on in the society.
    Similarly, the fulfilment of desires in the life is envisaged to
    be within the frame work of Dharma. At its lowest level of
    manifesta􀀛on, the term Kama is understood in the sense of pure
    sex drive which is essen􀀛al for propoga􀀛on of the species; Manu
    as well as Mahabharat speak on this desire which is not
    condemned in totality.
    Prashna Upanishad declares “sex at night is as good as
    celibacy” (1/13). Apat Dharma Sutra declares that a man should
    enjoy all such pleasures as are not opposed to Dharma (2/8/20)
    Kau􀀛lya says “one may enjoy Kama provided there is no conflict
    with Dharma and Artha; one should not lead a life of no
    pleasure” (1/7).
    Shrikrishna declares “I am the kama which is not against
    Dharma” (7/11).
    The Hindu Seers permi􀀢ng the enjoyment of desires, call
    upon the people to uphold one’s duty and the welfare of the
    society. For instance, the final salva􀀛on is not possible without
    repaying the Pitru Rina (debts to fore fathers) which is possible
    by bege􀀢ng progenies. This debt concept tells how the sex
    94
    enjoyment and the propoga􀀛on of species for societal benefit
    are synchronised beau􀀛fully. In turn, concept kama also defines
    individual’s rela􀀛on with the children, the wife, the parents and
    also with other members of the community.
    Moksha
    Moksha is the final libera􀀛on conceived for individuals under
    Hindu philosophy. It is again a false no􀀛on that leaving the
    working things and going to forest for medita􀀛ng on God can
    only bring Moksha. Worldly A􀀫aining Moksha is possible even
    when you follow the worldly life, by fulfilling one’s duty to the
    family, to the society and to God. The concept of re-birth tells us
    that one must take re-birth if the obligatory du􀀛es are not
    fulfilled and Moksha is not for him.
    A person seeking Moksha should posses compassion for all
    (gd© ^yVmZwH$ånm) and should prac􀀛ce non-in jury to all creatures
    (gd© ^yV Aqhgm). Moreover, the panch Mahayajna, the five great
    sacrifices towards, God, Rishis, fore fathers, all living creatures
    including the mankind ought to be performed daily by the seeker
    of Moksha.
    All this, moulds the mental frame work of the Hindu
    individual and enables him to become duty-oriented. Even the
    selfish-Moksha comes to him only through his du􀀛es and service
    unto others. Dr. Radhakrishnan puts it, “The purpose of human
    life is to cross the line, to emerge from insufficiency and
    ignorance to fullness and wisdom. This is Moksha or libera􀀛on
    into the light of superconsciousness. Moksha or libera􀀛on is to
    be achieved here and now, on earth through human rela􀀛ons”.10
    This clearly defines Social Rela􀀛ons that existed in ancient India.
    The Dharma-Artha-Kama-Moksha are the psycho-social
    values that govern the individual’s rela􀀛on with others. All the
    four are equally important for a Hindu and these aims of life can
    be conceived only in rela􀀛on with other individuals and groups.
    These principles help and guide the individual’s rela􀀛on in the
    95
    family and the society. As all the four are perceived as concerned
    more about du􀀛es rather than the rights, every individual strives
    to accomodate other’s interest first and show importance and
    recogni􀀛on to others. In turn he gets prominence and a􀀫en􀀛on
    from others and thus goes the rela􀀛on among the individuals in
    Hindu society.
    The Family
    The family is the basic social group and the family is the
    matrix through in which the most significant habits and a􀀢tudes
    are developed in the individual. King and koller write on family,
    “The basic social web in which all humans live is the family. It is
    the family which provides vital biological and psychological
    support for the infant as the child goes through the long process
    of matura􀀛on. The family is the ini􀀛al and essen􀀛al transmi􀀫er
    of culture, and it forms an important social and economic
    unit.”11
    “The family, as social unit has already assimilated, through
    years and ages, the tradi􀀛ons, the sen􀀛ments and modes of
    behaviour of the society. It therefore plays the part of a suitable
    medium to convey these to its individual members. The family is
    an instrument or agent of the larger society, its failure to perform
    adequately means that the goals of the larger society may not be
    a􀀫ained effec􀀛vely.”12 In the family the individual obtains most
    of the fundamental values which are woven into his life
    organisa􀀛on. “Members of the family are usually inden􀀛fied as a
    social unit that has a specified part to play in the life of
    community.”13 The primary ideals of human society-ideals of
    love, service, self-sacrifice have their original schooling in the
    family, because the family normally illustrates the prac􀀛ces for
    which these ideals stand. Goode adds “Society is a structure
    made up of families and that the peculiari􀀛es of a given society
    can be described by out-lining its family rela􀀛ons.”14
    With this preliminary discussion on the importance of family
    96
    as an ins􀀛tu􀀛on, let us now turn towards Hindu Family.
    The Hindu Family
    Hindu family begins with the sacrament of marriage of a
    Brahmachari (Bachelour) who vows to lead a pious and virtuous
    life of a Gruhastha (House-holder) by the acceptance of the hand
    of the kanya (Virgin girl) (nm{ZJ«hUm{X J¥h`_² n[aMaoV² && Aídmbm`Z
    J¥h`gyÌ & 1/9/1 also other Gruhya Sutras). As soon as he is
    wedded, the man must prepare himself to undertake the du􀀛es
    connected with ‘Home’ where, according to Hindu
    Dharmashstras he has to prac􀀛ce all those rites intended for the
    preserva􀀛on and con􀀛nuity of the kula (Hw$b), which may be
    translated as the family.
    The man enters his home by the ceremony of Gruha
    prawesh in which the “Vastoshpa􀀛”, the fire God is invoked with
    a prayer to him that He may be saviour of the human beings and
    animals that come to dwell in the house (Parashara Gruhya Sutra
    3/4 5 to 7) and this fire which was kindled at the 􀀛me of the
    marriage has to be kept on going con􀀛nuously with great
    vigilance by worshipping it daily.
    Manu ordains that the householder must perform Panch
    Maha Yajna five great sacrifices daily according to his capacity by
    which he gets rid of all the sins of violence (nü¡VmÝ`mo _hm`kmÞ hmn`{V
    e{ŠVV: & gJ¥ho@{n dg{ÞË`§ gyZmXmof¡Z© {bß`Vo && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/71). These
    Panch Maha Yajnas are (1) Brahma yajna-teaching and learning
    veda (2) Pitru Yajna – offering water and food to the forefathers
    (3) Deva- Yajna– performing sacrifices (4) Bhuta Yajna– offering
    food to the sprits who appear in the form of animals and birds (5)
    Nru-Yajna the hospitable offering of food and shelter to the
    guests (AÜ`mnZ§ ~«÷`k: {nV¥`kñVw§ Vn©U_² & hmomo X¡dmo ~{b^m±Vmo Z¥`kmo A{V{W
    nyOZ_² && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/70). Manu emphasises on their duty by saying
    that, the Rishis, the fore fathers, the Gods, the living creatures,
    and guests (strangers) depend upon the house holder (F$f`: {nVamo
    97
    Xodmo ^yVmÝ`m{V“ñVVm & AmemgVo Hw$Qw>på~å` ñVoä`:H$m`© {dOmZVm && _Zwñ_¥{V
    3/89). Yajnavalkya also upholds the above views of Manu [
    Yajnavalkya smru􀀛 chapter 1 ]. The epic Mahabharat calls upon
    the house-holder as well as his wife to eat, only a􀁓er offering
    food to servants, the stranger, and the dependants like old
    parents, by which he eats only nectar (^¥Ë`m{V{nfw `mo ^wS>ŠVo ^wŠVdËgw
    gXm gXm & A_¥V§ Ho$db^wS>ŠVo B{V {d{Õ `w{Y{ð>a && em§{Vnd© 221/13). While
    Manu further ordains to make enough efforts to feed all living
    creatures (XÚmƒ gd© ^¥VmZm_ AÞ`od à`ËZV: && _Zwñ_¥{V 9/333).
    All these point to the nature of social rela􀀛on in the Hindu
    family. Further, these norms contribute a lot in the moulding of
    the mental frame work of the house-holder as well as other
    members in the family in which even the small child observes
    these ac􀀛vi􀀛es and learns to respects Gods, Rishis, fore fathers,
    the animals and the strangers.
    Trusteeship Concept in the Family
    As per Hindu Philosophy, life in this world is a sojourn in
    which the family-life becomes a part. A􀁓er the family-life
    (Gruhastha Asharama), one has to leave all his worldly
    belongings for one’s future genera􀀛on (children and grand
    children) to enter into the next stages of Vana-prastha and
    Sanyasa Ashram. When he entered into the family life, he
    received all these from his father and fore fathers, to which he
    himself contributed according to his might. And that is the
    reason, he has to remember his forefathers daily by performing
    Pitru Yajna. And also he is expected to share his wealth with the
    guests and other living creatures by hospitable offering of food
    to them. The concept of Siloncha ({gbmo§ƒm && `mkdbŠ` ñ_¥{V &
    1/128) and the concept of “Vighashasi” ({dYem{g… _hm^maV
    em§{Vnd©&& 11/23 and 24) call upon the Hindu individual not to
    amass wealth and to take care of others including the
    dependants on him, including the servants.
    Thus, the Hindu individual considers the Home (family
    98
    wealth) as entrusted to him by his fore-fathers, which he has to
    pass on to the next genera􀀛on with addi􀀛on or increase and with
    the a􀀢tude of non-a􀀫achment. For him, all home/property
    belongs in the social meaning, to his fore fathers and their grand
    children, not to himself. Lundberg writes “In Hindu society,
    property was owned by the family, not by the individual and was
    passed from genera􀀛ons to genera􀀛ons within the father’s
    family”.15 Even while enjoying all the fruits of family wealth as he
    is the Swami of the family, he considers himself as the trustee of
    the family which shows the psychology of con􀀛nuity in its
    tradi􀀛on. Hence a home is a place where the present, the past
    and the future members are living along with the animals and
    the guests or strangers.
    This kind of trusteeship concept conveys a lot about the
    social rela􀀛ons therewith. The social rela􀀛ons within the family
    were based on mutual respect, emphasising the duty rather
    than the right; with the mo􀀛ve of service to others rather than
    selfish and individualis􀀛c, self centered goals.
    Inter-Rela􀀡ons Within-the Family
    Let us now, turn towards the inter-rela􀀛ons within the family
    like those between husband and wife, brothers and sisters,
    parents and children etc.
    Husband-Wife Rela􀀛ons
    The oldest literary works the Vedas beau􀀛fully describe the
    sweet rela􀀛on between husband and wife and a􀀫aches high
    importance to this rela􀀛on. Husband and wife pray to God “Let
    our eyes be sweet like honey. Let out eyes be full of life with best
    eye liner; keep me in your heart, let our thoughts be together for
    all the 􀀛me” ( Aú`mo Zmo _Ywg§H$memo AZrH$ Zm¡ g_‚mZ_² && AÝV H¥$Uwîd _m h{X
    _Z BÞmo ghmg{V && AWd©doX 7/36/1). Further, it says “you are to
    remain always mine and let no other name come to your lip” (`Wm
    gmo __ Ho$dbmo ZmÝ`mgm§ {H$V©`müZ AWd©doX 7/37/1). Rig Veda alludes
    most respec􀁎ul place for wife by addressing her Om`XñV_²
    99
    meaning “the wife is the home”,16 Altharva Veda proclaims “O!
    the young wedded couples, you be happy in this family life. Let
    you never be disunited. Enjoy full life with your children and
    grand children with all comfort (Bh¡d ñV _m {d `m¡îñQ>§ {doe_m`wÀ`© lwV_&
    {H«$S>ÝVmo nwÌ¡Z©n¥{^_m} X_mZm¡ ñdñV H$mo && 14/1/22).
    Manu explaining the Dharma of husband and wife, giving full
    freedom for enjoyment including that of sex desire (_Zwñ_¥{V
    9/103) call upon both to take part together in all the rituals with
    c o – o p e r a 􀀛 o n a n d h a r m o n y a n d w i t h o u t fi d e l i t y
    (AÝ`moÝ`ñ`mÝ`m{^Mmamo ^doXm_aUmpÝVH$: Ef Y_© g_mgoZ k` : ñÌrnwg`mo: na:&&
    9/101). They must see that they are not opposed to each other
    and that they must remain faithful to each other (VWm {ZË`§ `Vo`Vm§
    ñÌrnwgm¡ Vw H¥$V {H«$`m¡ & `Wm Z{^MaoVm§ Vm¡{d`wŠVm {dVaoVa_² && 9/102). Further
    the husband is enjoined to seek sexual gra􀀛fica􀀛on through his
    wife only and not other woman (_Zwñ_¥{V 3/45 ñ`mËñdXma{ZaV: gXm).
    Driving the point of mutual responsibility for cordial rela􀀛on,
    Manu says “The man gets his wife not by wish alone but she is
    given to him by God. Hence, to show respect towards God, the
    husband must behave cordially with her and even smallest
    ac􀀛vity must always be performed taking her into confidence”
    (XodXÎmm§ n{V_m`m© {dXÝVo ZoÀN>`mË_Z: & Vm§ gmÜdr{d^w`m{ÞË`§ XodmZm§ {n«`m_mMíZ²
    9/95 and Vñ_mgmYaUmo Y_©:lwVm¡ àËÝ`m ghmo{XV: 9/96).
    Mahabharat proclaims “There is no rela􀀛ve like wife, no
    saviour like wife, and there is no one like wife in the Dharma
    ac􀀛vi􀀛es (ZmpñV ^m`m© g_mo ~ÝYwZm©pñV ^m`m© g_mJ{V: & ZmpñV^m`m© g_mo
    bmoHo$ghm`o Y_© g§J«ho && em§{Vnd©& 144/16). It, further, elaborates”. She is
    the main helper in all the Dharma, Artha and Kama ac􀀛vi􀀛es and
    also on foreign tour (Y_m©W©H$m_H$mbofw ^m`m© nw§g: ghm{`Zr &… {dXoer J_Zo
    Mmñ` && em§{Vnd© 144/13 and 14).
    “Aitareeya Brahmana” text, says that a wife is a friend, which
    shows her equal status with her husband. The wife is called Om`m
    because the husband is born of her again in the form of son,
    100
    (EoVar` ~«m÷U 33/1) while Shatapath Brahmana text calls her as
    the be􀀫er-half of the husband (eVnW ~«m÷U 5/1/6/10).
    Sukta 14 of kand 1 of Atharva Veda, speaks on how a
    bride/girl is helpful in the welfare of the family and she is looked
    upon as an important person who brings various virtues by
    ge􀀢ng married into a par􀀛cular family. At the marriage
    ceremony, hope was expressed on behalf of every bride that she
    would in due course, be able to command the a􀀫en􀀛on of the
    Assembly (which means she addressed public/commi􀀫ee
    mee􀀛ngs) by her powers of speech and persuassion (d{e{Z Ëd_²
    {dÚ _mdXgr && F$½doX 10/85/26).
    All these, point to the nature of inter-rela􀀛ons between
    husband and wife as conceived in the ancient works. Husband
    and wife are bound to each other as complimentary not only 􀀛ll
    death but even a􀁓er death, in the other world, “No man even
    when he is in anger, should do anything that is disagreable to his
    wife, for happiness and joy all depend on the wife”. (_hm^maV
    Am{Xnd© 74/50) Ramayana goes ahead and declares “The wife is
    not at all different from the husband” implying the equality of
    man and wife. (AZÝ`énm nwéfñ` Xmam: & am_m`U & {H${îH$ÝXm H$m§S> 24/38)
    Rela􀀡on among Brothers and Sisters
    Atharva Veda desribes beau􀀛fully the rela􀀛on among
    brothers and sisters. It goes like “Let there be no clash between
    brother and sister and also between sister and sister. Let all have
    a common a􀀢tude and interact nobly and co-operate each
    other for common ac􀀛vi􀀛es without hypocracy (_m ^«mVm ^«mVa {ÛjZ
    _m ñdgma_wXñd_m & gå`ƒ gd«Vm ^yËdm dmM dXV ^Û`m & AWd©doX 3/38/3).
    In Mahabharat, Bhishma gives a discourse on the du􀀛es of the
    younger brothers toward the eldest and his obliga􀀛on towards
    the younger ones. The eldest brother, at 􀀛mes overlooking at the
    faults of his younger brothers, always should treat the younger
    one in the way in which perceptor treats his disciples
    101
    (Mahabharata, Anushasan Parva, chapter 105).
    Parents and Children
    In Hindu religious teaching, the parents are held in high
    esteem and they are the Gods for the children (_mV¥ Xodmo ^d & {nV¥Xodmo
    ^d && V¡Var` Cn{ZfX 1/112).
    The word Parent is denoted in Sanskrit by Pitru which is
    derived from the root PA (n) meaning to protect or to preseve.
    This meaning thus emphasises the rela􀀛on between the parent
    and the children and also the role and obliga􀀛ons of parents
    towards children. The Rig Veda (4/17/17 and others) refers to
    the father as the symbol of all goodness and kindness. Father is
    equated to the sky for its greatness and vastness while mother is
    equated to earth for its affec􀀛on and capacity to feed all the
    living beings, on its surface, ({nVm Y_©: {nVm ñdJ©: {nVm hr na_ Vn: &
    {nVar {à{V_mnÞo gdm©: àr`pÝVXodVm: em§{Vnd©& 266/21 and ZmpñV_mV¥g_m
    N>m`m ZmpñV _mV¥g_m: J{V & ZmpñV _mV¥g_ ÌmU ZmpñV _mV¥g_m {à`m && em§{Vnd©
    266/31).
    For the children, there exists no greater Dharma than the
    respect for father and no greater Dharma than the protec􀀛on of
    mother ({nV¥ajm namo Y_©: & _hm^maV em§{Vnd© & 266/11) (ñdY_m} _mV¥aj_m_
    && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 266/11).
    The son is denoted by the word Putra and the Swayambhuwa
    himself addressed son as Putra because he rescues the parents
    from the hell called ‘put’ (nwZmåZmo ZaH$mÚñ_Ìm`Vo {nVa gwV: & Vñ_mnwÌ B{V
    n«moH$Vm: ñd`_od ñd`§^wdm && _Zwñ_¥{V & 4 9/138). Mahabharat gives the
    beau􀀛ful narra􀀛on of happiness and joy derived from the small
    child and there exists no higher level of happiness for the parents
    than the touch of the child. It says “What is a greater happiness
    to a father than what the father feels when his son, running to
    him, clasps him with his 􀀛ny li􀀫le arms though his body is full of
    dust and dirt? And even the touch of the sandal paste or that of a
    woman and water, is not so pleasing as that of one’s own son
    102
    locked in to his embrace” (Mahabharat Adiparva, chapter 74/ 50
    to 55)
    Perhaps the most important verse that brings out the
    rela􀀛on between parents and children is from Atharva veda
    which says “Let the son be always suppor􀀛ve to his father and
    behave with his mother piously and let there be love between
    them like cow loving its calf” (AZwd«Vm: {nVw nwÌmo _mVm ^dVw g_Zm: & …
    dËg OmV {^dmÕÝ`m && AWd©doX 4 3/30, 1 and 2).
    The whole Sukta 30, kanda 3 of Atharva Veda describes the
    inter-rela􀀛on in the family. It says “Let your hearts have the same
    noble feeling; the mind be the same with noble a􀀢tude, and let
    there be no clash in the home. Let all of you love and respect one
    another to have be􀀫er atmosphere in the home. Let all of you
    possess the best knowledge by which there will be no clash and
    the interac􀀛on in the family will not be at logger heads. Respect
    elders, generate noble thoughts in the mind, strive for the best
    atmosphere, co-operate with each other and never clash with
    each other. Let your place of drinking and ea􀀛ng be united and
    perform rituals together and unitedly live in the society like the
    spokes of a wheel are 􀀛ed with the axle” (göX` g_Zñ` _{dÛof§ H¥$Uo{_
    d:& AÝ`mo AÝ`_{^ h`©V dËg§ OmV{_dm¿Ý`m Ý`m`ñdÝV{ü{bZmo _m {d `moï>
    gamg`ÝV gYwamüaÝV: & AÝ`mñ_o dëJw dXÝV EH$ gYrMrZmÝd g_ZñH¥$Uo{V &&
    g_mZr ànm ghdmoÞ ^mJ: g_mZo `moÌo ghdmo`wZÝ_r & gå`ƒmo@{Z gn`©Vmam
    Zm{^{_dm{^V: & VîH¥$Ê_mo ~«÷ dm J¥ho g§kmZ§ nwaofä`:… AWd©doX gyŠV 30 &
    H$mÊS> 3 &&).
    Yet another factor that brings out the rela􀀛ons in the family
    and the society at large is the concept of “sacrament” in Hindu
    family.
    Sacraments in Hindu Family
    Hindu culture provides for a number of Samskara g§ñH$ma.,
    Meant for the purifica􀀛on or sanc􀀛fica􀀛on of individual, which
    are considered as the mechanisms for socializa􀀛on process in
    103
    Hindu family. “Socializa􀀛on is the process by which the young
    human being acquires the values and knowledge of his group
    and learns the social roles appropriate to his posi􀀛on in it.17 The
    nearest English word by which the term Samskara may be
    translated is sacrament. The common word ceremony, does not
    give the full and precise meaning because Samskara does not
    mean merely an outward religious rite or observance. They are
    the ac􀀛vi􀀛es having socio-religious importance for the
    individual as well as the family and the society. “It may be seen
    that the Hindu sacrament aimed at not only the formal
    purifica􀀛on of the body but also at sanc􀀛fying impressing,
    refining perfec􀀛ng the en􀀛re individuality of the reciepient,
    producing a special merit in him”.18
    The Samskaras were never regarded as ends by themselves
    as they are the means in leading man to the ul􀀛mate goal of
    existence and the virtues of the soul (AmË_-JwU) were also
    developed. Moreover, various rules of conduct and behaviour
    are prescribed in detail for different Samskaras.
    Panini the great Sanskrit scholar gives the meaning of the
    word Samskaras as g§ñH¥$dÝVr g§Jr^dÝVr that which purifies
    producing perfec􀀛on and that which moulds one to live in group.
    Again, Samskaras is that which increases the good quali􀀛es and
    reduces the bad ones JwUmZ dY©`Vr, XmofmZ hmn`Vr g§ñH$ma :-
    “The Samskaras had been treated from very ancient 􀀛mes as
    necessary for unfolding the latent capaci􀀛es of man for
    development and as being the symbols or signs of inner change
    which would fit human beings for corporate life and they also
    tended to confer a certain status on those who under went
    them”.19
    In short, it becomes clear that the purpose to be served by
    these rites, is for the complete development and transforma􀀛on
    of the personality to mould him into a perfect social being
    Parashara Smru􀀛 (8/19) says “just as a picture is painted in
    104
    various colours, so the character of a person is formed by his
    undergoing various Sanskaras properly.”
    As the Samskaras are performed at specific periods of 􀀛me
    of different developmental stages of the human being, they
    serve the purpose of conveying to the individual that he is an
    important and useful member of the family as well as of the
    society. Further, the hidden meaning of the actual rites
    performed and the prayers offered at these Samskaras conveys
    to the individual and consistently imbibes on his mind that he
    owes something back to the family and to the society as an
    important member of it.
    Number of Samskaras g§ñH$ma
    Manu envisages various samskaras for becoming “Pavanah”
    (purified) for a person in this life as well as the life a􀁓er death
    (H$m`© earag§ñH$ma : nmdZ: àoË` Moh M && _Zwñ_¥{V 2/26). Other
    Smru􀀛karas also men􀀛on about Samskaras but the only
    difference is about the number of Samskaras. But it will be
    sufficient to discuss only a few most important ones to bring
    their social implica􀀛ons and their role in Hindu family and
    society with regard to Social Rela􀀛on.
    The Garbhadana (J^©XmZ)
    Manu and Yajnavalkya ordain the first sacrament or
    Samskara as that of the foetus-laying ceremony or the
    consuma􀀛on of marriage, usually performed a􀁓er the third day
    of marriage. The mo􀀛ve behind this Samskara, is to beget noble
    and power full children for the family. At the 􀀛me of marriage,
    the couple take the vow to be the par􀀛es for “Kula-vardhana”
    (propoga􀀛on of family) and “Garbhadana” is the fulfillment of
    that duty.
    “According to Hindusim procrea􀀛on is not to be looked upon
    as a biological phenomonon only, common to all animals, but it
    should be seen in a socio-ethical context. It is a sacred duty of the
    married couple to approach each other in the proper 􀀛me for
    105
    the sake of progeny so that the race might con􀀛nue.”20
    The “Pitru-rina” (debt to fore fathers) can be repaid by the
    procrea􀀛on of children which implies that the social con􀀛nuity
    and welfare of society to be kept in mind during procrea􀀛on. The
    sexual enjoyment is also seen from the societal good and
    considered as a duty towards society. The health and safety of
    the foetus is prayed for ({haÊ_`r AaUr` {Z^©`Vmo ApídZm & Vo Vo J^©
    hdm_oh Xe_o _{g gwVdo… F$½doX 10/184) and the progeny is seen as an
    important future member of the family and the society.
    The Punsawana Samskara (nw§gdZ g§ñH$ma)
    When the safety of foetus is confirmed a􀁓er three months of
    concep􀀛on, Punsavana Samskara intended for perpetua􀀛ng the
    family by way of bege􀀢ng a child takes place. It was thought
    necessary that through the treatment of the pregnant mother
    the child in the womb should be influenced and so medical and
    mental treatment of the mother was prescribed through this
    Samskara. A male issue was an important adjunct in the family in
    ancient 􀀛mes, which is conceived as serving the welfare of the
    family and in turn the welfare of the society.
    The Seemantonnayana ({g_ÝVmoÞ`Z)
    This Samskara helps us to understand the care and a􀀫en􀀛on
    given to the pregnant mother and the child in the womb. It also
    brings out the social interca􀀛on between the husband and wife
    to be par􀀛es to produce a healthy member for the family. The
    Samskara takes place a􀁓er fi􀁓h month of preganancy when the
    mental forma􀀛on of the child starts. To avoid mental as well as
    physical shock to the foetus, emo􀀛onal and psychological
    support is given to the mother. With caressing a􀀫en􀀛on the
    husband himself touches the hairs of the pregnant wife and 􀀛es
    a small udumbara (fig tree) branch round her neck with the
    words “Rich in sap is this tree; like the tree rich in sap, be thou
    frui􀁎ul” (A`§ D$O©dVmo d¥j COud \$bm{Z ^d… nmañH$ J¥ø gyÌ && 1/15/6)
    106
    The Jatakarma (OmVH$_©)
    The Jatakarma sacrament takes place at the birth of the child
    which is made up of several items. The first item is Medha
    Janana (the genera􀀛on of talent). Father touches and smells the
    child and u􀀫er benedictory mantras into its ears. The child is fed
    with ghee and honey with a thin gold strip which are symbolic of
    strength and intelligence.21
    The other items include praying for longer life, strength etc.
    The mother is congratulated by the husband with the words
    “thou are like the admirable Arundha􀀛, be thou be blessed with
    prosperity”.22 It is clear that the entry of a new member in the
    family is not a causal one and it is a highly auspicious occasion
    because of its racial importance.
    The Namakarana (Zm_H$aU)
    The Hindu society realised the importance of naming newborns
    and elevated the act to the posi􀀛on of a religious
    sacrament.
    The Namakarana Samskar takes place on 10th to 12th day
    a􀁓er the birth of the child when it is given name. Prayers are
    offered to Indra and other Gods to take care of the child like a
    deposit kept with them. Hindu Shastrakaras a􀀫ach much
    importance to this sacrament as through this the child is known
    by the family and the Varna (community) which implies that the
    new born is given the full membership of the family as well as the
    community. Moreover the occupa􀀛on and the social status also
    made known through this sacrament.
    The Nishkarana ({ZîH$aU)
    This sacrament takes place when the child is of the age when
    he can be taken outside the house. It is fes􀀛ve occasion for the
    parents to take the child outside the house and hence this socioreligious
    sacrament is performed. “The parents as well as
    Kinsmen (community people) celebrate the sacrament which is
    107
    important also because it recognises a vital need of the growing
    child brought face to face with the sublime splender of the
    Universe”.23
    The Annaprashan (AÝZàmeZ)
    The ceremony is performed usually in the sixth month a􀁓er
    delivery. On this occasion the child is fed with solid food for the
    first 􀀛me, which is the physical necessity of the child. The
    “Annapate God” is invoked to make the child healthy and
    adventurous by providing him with nutri􀀛ous food. The purpose
    of the sacrament is to make aware the parents, on the growing
    need of the child and to make known their role in its health and
    growth. It is also important as it marks the weaning of the child
    from the mother at a proper 􀀛me.
    The Chudakarma (MwS>mH$_©)
    The Chudakarma, tonsuring of the hair takes place at the end
    of the first year or before the third year of birth as per the local
    conven􀀛ons. Probably at this age, the child grows to understand
    the physical hygeine and the sacrament is the child in􀀛ta􀀛on to
    the first lessons of bodily hygiene. The parents are expected to
    take care not only of food-in-take of the child but also the bodily
    hygeine for the child’s proper growth and development.
    The Upanayana (CnZ`Z)
    In the Hindu thought, this is the second most important
    sacrament a􀁓er that of marriage even though each Samskara is
    important in its own context. The term Upa-Nayan signifies
    “leading to near; near to the society as the child a􀀫ains the age
    to learn rules and regula􀀛ons of the society. In ths Atharva-Veda
    the term Upanayana is used in the sense of “taking charge of a
    student by the teacher.” (AmMm`© CnZ`_mZmo ~«÷Mmar Hw$éVo…… 11/5/3)
    The original idea is the child’s ini􀀛a􀀛on for educa􀀛on in
    which he begins to learn the lores of the society through the
    learning of Vedas and other texts considered to be the
    108
    manuscripts for the func􀀛oning and development of the society.
    From the sacramental point of view, one item to be observed is
    the last meal, child eats si􀀢ng in the lap of the mother. This
    marks the end of the childhood and the beginning of a career
    outside the home, to be independent and self-reliant. The child
    is specially instructed and advised to observe social decorum
    and to maintain his own dignity and self-control from now
    onwards as the social consicousness begins to draw upon the
    boy by the age of this sacrament.
    The teacher touches the heart of the child and in􀀛􀀛ates him
    to educa􀀛on which symbolies the mental and emo􀀛onal
    communion between the teacher and the student. During the
    ceremony, the child holds “Danda” a branch of phalas tree and
    u􀀫ers the Mantra, “Let I be void of arrogancy, Let this Danda
    keep me on moral path and protect me from all fears from all
    direc􀀛ons”. (AXmV X_{`Ëdm _m§ _mJ} gñ`mndÝñd`§ & XÊS>: H$ao {gWVmo
    `ñ_mÎmñ_mX²dj `Vmo ^`&&)
    Again, he goes under the phalas tree and prays “O! phalas
    tree, you are much reputed in protec􀀛ng Gods and Yajnakartas;
    bless me to become like you, so that I am able to take care of
    humanity and Vedic Community” (gwldm gwldm gwldm A{g `Wm Ëd&
    gwldm gwldm Añ`oV _m§ gyld: gmoÌdg Hw$é & `Wm Ëd§ XodmZm `kñ` {Z{fYmo@Ë`dh§
    _Zwî`mUm§ doXñ` {Z{fYmo ^y`mgf² & AmnV Y_© J¥hñ` gyÌ & AÜ`m` 1).
    “Bruhaspa􀀛, the god of knowledge, Indra, the god of power and
    Agni the god of brilliance and energy are held before him as his
    ideals. If a student acts in the spirit of what is suggested by the
    symbolism of this sacrament, he is bound to be a successful
    scholar and a full fledged ci􀀛zen fit to share the responsibility of
    the world”.24
    This speaks of the highest and noblest of objec􀀛ves
    envisaged to a child who prepares himself to take up the cudgles
    of life in the society, to serve the mankind throughout his life.
    Perhaps the most important item in the upanayan sacrament
    109
    is begging of alms from others. The child begs alms (^dmZ {^jm§ Xohr
    d ^d{V {^jm§ Xohr) from others which he has to divide into four
    equal parts, one for his Guru, the teacher, one for Gods which is
    later on given to cow; one for guests (strangers), and the last part
    to himself. This ac􀀛vity carries a lot of social significance as the
    child learns the lessons of HUMILITY which is a significant
    a􀀫ribute for a persons intending to do social service. The child
    requires this quality in him and hence his personality is moulded
    to evolve in him this a􀀫ribute.
    Further it shows that the society is more important than the
    individual. It conveys to him that he depends on the society
    rather than the society depending on him. At the same 􀀛me,
    society sincerely and defenitely hopes of his becoming a good
    useful ci􀀛zen. All Brahmacharins have to beg the alms, whether
    or not he belongs to a rich or poor family as the sacrament is
    same for all. A child from a wealthy family also, put on the same
    foo􀀛ng of the child from a poor family as far as the Educa􀀡on is
    concerned and there arises no ques􀀛on of wealthy family
    providing all alms for their own children for educa􀀛on.
    Irrespec􀀛ve of background of the family all children under going
    this sacrament and ge􀀢ng the educa􀀛on, must beg alms and live
    by it alone.
    Again it is a symbolic ac􀀛vity which points to the interest
    shown by the society in the educa􀀛on of Brahma-charins, the
    future members of the society. These future members need
    educa􀀛on and proper training to be good for the society in
    future and useful for its welfare and growth. Society
    understands this responsibility and willingly provides alms to
    these Brachamacharins. Moreover, all the house-holders accept
    it as their obligatory duty to provide alms to the students and
    never refuse when one begs for it. It is not the will and wish of the
    house-holder that determine whether or not to give alms but his
    duty-consciousness-social duty mind-that freely and willingly
    110
    donates alms to the future member. This is an apt example of
    society taking care of the individual and the individual when
    becomes the house-holder taking care of the societal needs and
    the sharing of responsibility of the educa􀀛onal need.
    Last but not the least, the sacramet beau􀀛fully imbibes on
    the young mind of the child undergoing “Upanayana Samskar”
    that he is dependant on the society to which he owe many things
    in return. Begging of alms and living on it for at least twelve years
    to come, tells him not to forget his obliga􀀛ons to the society.
    Interes􀀛ngly he gets at the same 􀀛me the training to develop
    a􀀢tude for social commitment, by way of sharing his alms daily,
    with the teacher, the guest and the animals because he has a
    claim only on one fourth of whatever he gets by begging.
    Hindu Shastrakaras have really well done their job of
    upholding the responsibility and social obliga􀀛ons of all
    concerned rather than the selfish and self-centred
    consciousness of their rights and the social interac􀀛on and the
    social rela􀀛ons are beau􀀛fully skecthed out, through such
    sacraments.
    The Vivah ({ddmh)
    The most important of all the Hindu sacraments is that of
    vivah or marriage which unites not only the two individuals but
    also of two families and even two villages. Lundberg writes on
    Hindu marriage “The marriage contract was recognised as an
    arrangement between two families rather that of two
    persons”.25 One of the mantras of marriage ceremony goes on
    “Let the emo􀀛on of all of you become similar, let your heart be
    one, let all of you think in the same direc􀀛on and let opinion of all
    you be same” (g_mZrd AmH¥${V g_möX`m{Zd…. F$½doX 10/191/24).
    The marriage is not a contract but a sacrament and an
    ins􀀛tu􀀛on under Hindu philisophy.26 The marriage is an affair
    not only of the girl and the boy but of the whole society. It is a life
    long or even a􀁓er death, for seven lifes to come, union of two
    111
    souls which can never be dissolved or divorced. (_m§ {d `moîR>§ &&
    AWd©doX 14/1/22). Manu says “it is not the desire of the man that
    alone brings him the wife rather it is the wish of God” (XodXÎmm§ n{V
    ^m©`m©² {dXÝVo ZoÀ`mË_Z: && _Zwñ_¥{V 9/95) and calls upon the couple to
    live together 􀀛ll death (9/101). Besides this, the Vivah, is not a
    blanket liscence for immidiate sexual enjoyment as the couple
    have to undergo the Garbhadana” sacrament before the
    marriage is consumated. For the couple, the propoga􀀛on of the
    species is a holy act and the good of the family, of the kinship and
    of the society becomes their priority.
    The Vivah sacrament is the most central one as it is the link,
    the gateway to the second stage of life, Gruhasthashram in
    which the individual can get rid all his Rinas (debts). The Mantras
    u􀀫ered at the ceremony including those at the 􀀛me of Saptapadi
    are of social significance in which the husband and wife promise
    to lead a life for the well-being of the whole society.
    The Antyeshthi (AÝË`oï>r)
    Antyeshthi, the funeral is the last sacrament in the life of a
    Hindu individual, which is concerned mainly with the life a􀁓er
    and the next life to come.
    Thus, the Hindu Seers successfully evolved the mechanism
    called the sacraments to mould the social animal into a prefect
    social being. Every Hindu ought to undergo these sacraments,
    including the women (A_Z{ÌH$m Vw H$m`}` ñÌrUm_md¥XeofV: && _Zwñ_¥{V
    2/66) and the sudras (_Zwñ_¥{V 10/127 and `mkdbŠ` 1/121); only
    difference is to perform the sacraments without mantras and
    Rathakara (the chariot maker) a Sudra can be in􀀛􀀛ated to
    Upanayan, the second most important sacrament (Baudhayana
    Dharma Sutra 2/5/6). All these sacraments contribute a lot in
    framing the social interac􀀛ons and social rela􀀛ons. All the more,
    they convey the message of individual’s responsibility towards,
    the children, the family, the kinship and the society. They also
    112
    convey the message of caring by the society and freedom given
    to the individual to grow to his full poten􀀛al, within the frame
    work of good of all. Pandey notes “As in philosophy, so in rituals,
    life is regarded as a cycle. It starts from where it ends. From birth
    to death it is a con􀀛nuous series of incidents moving round one
    pivot the desire to live, to enjoy, to think and ul􀀛mately to re􀀛re.
    All the Samskaras and allied ceremonies emanate from this….
    The Samskaras were ins􀀛tuted to create the condi􀀛ons required
    for the development of the individual in order to integrate his
    personality with the society in which he was born and with the
    world around him”.27
    The customs and the rituals of these elaborate ceremonies
    of Samsakaras signify for the individuals, the family and the
    society that something good, something important is happening
    on these occasions. The society also gains from these as these
    are the milestones which shape the individuals for the good of
    the society. The wonderful achievement of these socio-religious
    func􀀛ons is that the interest of the individual, the family and the
    society are inter-woven and intergrated grandiousely.
    Thus, the rela􀀛ons in the family were cordial, co-opera􀀛ve
    and based on mutual respect and reciprocal right and
    responsibili􀀛es. The rela􀀛ons within the family, were in
    conformity with society norms, which evolved service to other
    mentality in all the individuals. The rela􀀛ons were considered to
    be sacred or Godly and were maintained not in selfish or selfcentered
    manner, rather were centered round the other person
    in the family which speak of duty – first approach.
    The Varna and Ashrama Systems (dU© Am{U Aml_)
    The framework of ancient Hindu society was founded upon
    Varna and Ashrama a fourfold classifica􀀛on of the en􀀛re
    people into Varnas and a fourfold division of the life of each
    individual into Ashramas. While the Varna system is intended to
    regulate the life of the society in the main, the Asharma system is
    113
    essen􀀛ally devised to regulate the life of the individual. “The two
    organisa􀀛on of the Ashrama and the Varna which to put it briefly
    refer to the problems of the nurture and the nature of man,
    rightly serve as the corner of the Hindu theory of social
    organisa􀀛on”.28
    Varna (dU©)
    Varna is the age old classifica􀀛on of the whole Hindu society
    into four specific and inter-related and inter-depended
    classifica􀀛ons, on the basis of the nature and temparement of
    the individuals.
    Dr. Radhakrishnan says “When the Vedic aryans found a
    heterogeneous popula􀀛on of various tribes and classes of
    different races and colour, worshipping different Gods spirits
    following diverse customs and habits of life and filled with the
    spirit of tribalism, they a􀀫empted to fit them all into an organic
    whole by the adop􀀛on of the fourfold classifica􀀛on which is
    based on social facts and psychology… The system was designed
    to unite all in one common economic, social, cultural and
    spiritual bond. By assigning definite func􀀛ons and du􀀛es and
    according rights and privileges, the different classes were
    expected to work in co-opera􀀛on and to achieve social harmony.
    It is a mould into which all human beings can be poured
    according to their voca􀀛onal ap􀀛tude and temparement.”29
    Varna classifica􀀛ons are Brahmanas, Kshatreyas, Vysyas
    and Sudras (~«mô_U-em¡`©-j[Ì`-ewÐ) belived to be originated from
    the mouth, the shoulders, the belly and the feet respec􀀛vely of
    the cosmic man (~«mô_Umoñ` _wñdm_mgrV ~mhamOÝ` H¥$V: & CñVÛoí` nX²å`m§
    ewÕmo AOm`V && F$½doX& nwéfgwŠV).
    It also meant that those who live by mouth ie teaching and
    learning are Brahmanas, who work by the valour of their
    shoulders are Kshatriyas, who work for produc􀀛on and
    distribu􀀛on of wealth are Vaysyas and those who live by their
    feet meaning doing service to others are Sudras. In its incep􀀛on
    114
    and later on also Varna was a flexible system and free mobility
    between Varna was in vogue. Shrikrishna declares in Bhagavad
    Gita “I created the four Varnas based on the temperament and
    voca􀀛on (MmVwd©Ê`© _`m g¥ï>m§ JwUH$_© {d^mJe: && ^JdX²JrVm 4/13).
    Sigh􀀛ng numerous examples Radhakrishnan says “There was
    healthy social mobility and for long, Varnas did not become
    hereditary and crystallised.”30
    All the four Varnas had been assigned specific du􀀛es and
    responsibili􀀛es as well as rights privileges which are
    complimentary and supplimentary among each other by which
    the society func􀀛oned smoothly like an organic whole. The
    author do not intend to discuss and draw inference on the
    hirearchy and discrimina􀀛on in Varna system as it is not the
    central theme of the present study. Neverthless, a lot of
    examples are available which drew the point that social rela􀀛ons
    were cordial, like the king used to take blessing of Sudras at his
    corona􀀛on ceremony and there were Sudras who rose to the
    hight of Brahmavadins, meaning highly learned persons.
    A point to be made is that of the social responsibili􀀛es and
    virtues, applicable to all Varnas as men􀀛oned in the epic
    Mahabharat. It says sharing of wealth (g{d^mJ), forgiveness
    (j_m) non-injury to all nurturing of all (AÛmoh Ed M), dependents
    (AmO©d ^¥Ë` ^aUm _hm^maV& em{ÝVnd© & 60/7 and 8) etc are the Dharma
    for all varnas. All these mean that the inter and intra social
    rela􀀛ons of the four Varnas were cordial and also harmonious
    which were definitely tuned to the welfare of the whole society.
    M.N. Srinivas writes, Varna percieved a common social language
    which holds good for India, as a whole.31
    The Ashrama System (Aml_)
    The Ashramas are four life stages with graduated course of
    du􀀛es calculated to lead an individual, step by step, towards a
    realiza􀀛on of the supreme spiritual ideal. They are the stages
    through which by intensive exer􀀛on and effort of the body and
    115
    the mind, by acts of religious exercsise and austerity, by selfdenial
    and self-discipline one may bring one’s whole self under
    subjec􀀛on.
    The scheme of the Ashrama as thought out and devised by
    the Hindu is a unique constribu􀀛on in the whole history of the
    social thought of the world.
    The word Ashrama is originally derived from the Sanskrit
    root Shrama meaning “to exert oneself”. Literally, an asharma is
    “hal􀀛ng place” or res􀀛ng place”. Therefore the word connotes a
    stage in a journey of life meant for the prepara􀀛on of next lap of
    the journey. The Asharmas are to regarded as res􀀛ng places
    during one’s journey on the way to final libera􀀛on which is the
    ul􀀛mate aim of life in Hinduism. The Ashramas are four in
    number, namely (1) the Brahmacharya- student stage (2) the
    Gruhastha- the stage of the house holder (3) the Vanaprastha
    the stage of re􀀛red life in the forest (4) the Sanyasa – the stage of
    complete renunica􀀛on.
    The Brahimacharya – Ashrama (~«÷M`© Aml_)
    The Brahmacharya Ashram begins with the sacrament
    Upanayna of a child who starts his students life at the place of his
    Guru – the teacher. He is expected to spend at least 12 years or 􀀛ll
    the 􀀛me he learns Vedas and other literary works. The
    Bramhacharin learns the ancient texts considered to be the
    lores of the society, to prepare himself for the next stage of
    family life. He is expected to keep celibacy, do service to the
    perceptor, beg alms daily for living, discuss on the Vedas etc. The
    students life was a life of Brahmacharya – of rigorous discipline of
    body and mind which would harden the physical system to go
    through austeri􀀛es without demur, and drill the mind in the
    exercise of moral quali􀀛es of self control, self denial and self
    sacrifice.32
    A story from Mahabharat speaks on the development of
    a􀀢tude service unto others even at the cost of self. The child
    116
    Brahmacharin, Aruni of Panchala country no􀀛ced inrush of
    waters into the fields including that of his percetor, which could
    have brought great damage to the village, unable to stop the
    waters, Aruni himself laid down at the breach in the dike and
    stopped the rushing waters. The teacher, a􀁓er no􀀛cing Aruni’s
    absence, searched only to find him, in the dead of night lying
    unconscious and completly wet and cold as Aruni was lying
    hours together at the breach. Recognising the efforts of the
    young Aruni, the perceptor addressed him as Uddalaka Aruni
    and proclaimed “O! Uddalaka Aruni the whole Vedas will come
    to you of their own. You will be proficient in them”. That was the
    kind of training one recieves at this Ashrama.
    A magnificient address by the teacher to the student on the
    eve of his leaving the school has been described in the Taiteraya
    Upanishad (1/11) emlodying noble maxims told in the words
    unique for their strength, brevity and vigour, which reads.
    “Speak the truth. Do thy duty, Deviate not from the path to
    greatness, Neglect not to discharge thy du􀀛es to the Gods and
    the Fathers. Whatever acts are above reproach should be
    regarded, not others. Whatever acts are good in our conduct,
    thow shalt respect and not the others etc.”33 That is the
    convoca􀀛on address of a Guru who moulded the student to lead
    a perfect social life by faultlessly observing his du􀀛es and by not
    shunning away from his worldly responsibili􀀛es which must be
    shouldered even to a􀀫ain Moksha or libera􀀛on.
    Such a student coming out as a Snataka or graduate assumes
    dignity and respect in the society. The lessons of humility and
    service along with the knowledge brings him pres􀀛gious place in
    the society and even the king shows him respect (Vashishtha
    Dharma Shastra 13/59) and the society honours him wherever
    he goes (Asvalayana Dharma shastra 3/9/6) which speaks
    volumes on the Social Rela􀀛ons of the individual belonging to
    Brahmacharya Ashrama.
    117
    The Grihastha Asharma (J¥hñW Aml_)
    The marriage sacrament is the turning point that marks the
    begining of the second stage ie. Grihastha Ashrama, in which
    the individual gets ready to discharge his du􀀛es towards the
    family, the fore fathers, the God and the society at large. The
    Atharva Veda calls upon the couples to be united throughout the
    life and to live happily and enjoy along with childern and grandchildern
    in this Grihastha Ashrama. (Bh¡d ñV§ _m {d `moï> _m`wì`©lwV_²
    {H$«S>ÝVmo nwÌ¡Z©n¥{^_m}X_mZ¡ ñdñV H$mo && AWd©doX 14/1/22)
    Of all the Ashramas, the Grihastha Asharma is given a very
    high place of honour. The Mahabharat emph􀀛cally clears the
    point by telling the story of Yudhish􀀛ra, the king who become so
    disgusted with the affairs of the world that he proposed to take
    to the Sanyasa Ashrama but he was eventually pursuaded to
    remain in Grihastha Ashrama as it is the supporter of other
    Ashramas, by the wise Dvaipayana Vyasa himself (`w{Y{ð>`_² à{V
    J¥hñWñ` l{îR>Úmnnm XZ_²…_hm^maV & em§{Vnd© & 11).
    The house-holder is the support of birds, animals and other
    living beings (_hm^maV em§{Vnd© 23/5) and hence this Ashrama is
    superior to all. Manu the law giver upholds Grihastha Ashrama
    as the most superior of all the four (VWm J¥hñW_m{lË` dV©ÝVo gd©
    Aml_m: J¥hñWoZod Ym`©ÝVo Vñ_m‚m`oUl_mo J¥hr _Zwñ_¥{V 3/77 and 78).
    The Grihastha Ashrama is the backbone in the Hindu social
    system, as this is the stage of propoga􀀛on of the species and
    social development. Neverthless, the house-holder never
    develops false ego of his high posi􀀛on in the society, rather
    accepts willingly as his obligatory duty to serve the rest of the
    society. The Hindu philosophy helps the house-holder to
    understand and realize his social responsibility, who becomes
    humble in serving others. A delicate balance of pres􀀛ge and
    responsibility has been envisaged by the Hindu Seers, which in
    turn also governs social interac􀀛on and social Rela􀀛on in this
    118
    Grihastha Ashrama.
    The Vanaprastha Ashrama (dmZàñW-Aml_)
    The third stage of Vanaprastha Ashrama, marks the
    beginning of re􀀛rement from ac􀀛ve family life when the children
    and grand children grow up to independent life of their own. The
    individual along with his wife, re􀀛res to forest and begins
    medita􀀛on for self salva􀀛on. He begs alms for his living and
    shares whatever he gets with the guests and travelers. He ought
    to have the a􀀢tudes of non-in jury to all (gd© ^yVmZwH$ånm) and must
    perform Panch Maha Yajnas daily, which included feeding of
    animals and birds and the guests.
    The Sanyasa Ashrama (g§Ý`mg Aml_)
    The Sanyasa Ashrama is the last stage of life in this world as
    per Hindu thought. The individual completely renunciate; all the
    worldy affairs and concentrate only on the self libera􀀛on.
    Moksha being the final aim in Hindu life, great importance is
    a􀀫ached to this stage of total reclusion. However, the Moksha
    can be a􀀫ained only when the whole du􀀛es in the earlier stages
    are fulfilled and hence a direct jump into the fourth stage for
    selfish interest of salva􀀛on is severely condemned. (AZYrÝ` {ÛOmo
    doXmZZwËdmÚ VWm gwVmZ & A{Zï>dm M¡d `kíd _moj {_ÀN>d«OË`ì`Ú: && _Zwñ_¥{V
    6/77)
    Further, there are incidents, in which wandering Sanyasins
    enter the villages for short dura􀀛on of stay for a maximum of one
    day in one village, who impart moral and spiritual teaching to
    the society which point towards the social interac􀀛on and social
    rea􀀛ons of Sanyasins too.
    In order to quality as Sanyasin, one must perform Prajapa􀀡
    Sacrifice in which all wealth has to be distributed to priests and
    the poor (àmOmnË`m {Zéß`o{fQ> gd© doXgX{lUm_ && _Zwñ_¥{V 6/38 also
    `mkdë` ñ_¥{V 3/65, {dîUwY_© gyÌ 96/1). P. V. Kane notes “He should
    move about avoiding all trouble or injury to creatures, should
    119
    make all creatures safe with him, should bear with indifference
    all disrespect, should entertain no anger towards him who is
    furious with him, he should beg alms at seven houses without
    selec􀀛ng them before hand.34
    Thus, we find from the above disicussion on Chaturvidha
    punyapurushartha, the family set up, Samskaras and Varna-
    Ashrama system, the nature of the wonderful social interac􀀛ons
    and Social Rela􀀛ons as conceived in the ancient Hindu literary
    works. The goal of the individual the family and the society are
    synchronised in such way that permi􀀢ng opportuni􀀛es for the
    individual’s full growth, the concern for family and the society
    was never relegated into the background. The individual was
    taken care of, by the family and the society when it is most
    required like during sacramental period and Brahmacharya
    Ashram and the individual shared his responsibility towards the
    society when he was matured and fully grown up during his
    Grihastha Ashram. The society offered a strong socio-economic
    frame work through the form of Varna system while the family
    took up the responsibility of development of a perfect social
    being through the socializa􀀛on process of Samskaras. The aim of
    life for an individual was kept in front of him through the
    Purusharthas which included the worldly desire for wealth and
    prosperity and passion, while the Ashrama system provided the
    necessary background to apply the aims into prac􀀛se. Social
    obliga􀀛on and duty consciousness with non-a􀀫achment
    became the bo􀀫om lines for Hindu social life even when the full
    freedom enjoyment and individual development was provided
    with.
    Apart from the State inter-ven􀀛on for social welfare, the
    ancient Hindu literature calls upon the individual to make efforts
    for the welfare of the society. In the following sec􀀛on the author
    wish to discuss the role and contribu􀀛on of individual in the
    Social Work ac􀀛vi􀀛es.
    120
    Individual’s Contribu􀀡on Towards Social Work
    In his rela􀀛on to the rest of the society, the individual,
    according to the Indian scheme, lays stress upon his du􀀛es – his
    dharma – by which he is to secure his own advancement.
    At his very birth, an individual is born charged with liabili􀀛es
    as the Brahmana works declare “Verily, whoever exists, is born
    as owing debt to the Gods, to the Rishis, to the fore-fathers and
    to men” (Tai􀁅ereeya Brahmana. 6/3/10 and Shatapatha
    Brahmana 1/7/2/1). Mahabharat includes in this list, debts to
    the guests, the servants, and to one’s own self (XodmV{V`o ^¥Ë`oä`
    {nV¥ä`ûMmË_ZñV`m & F$UdmZ² Om`Vo _Ë`©ñVñ_mXZ¥UVm§ d«OoV² && em§{Vnd© &
    292/9). And urges to get rid of these debts through service and
    duty. This concept of debts, binds him society to undertake many
    ac􀀛vi􀀛es for the welfare of mankind, animals and birds as the
    final salva􀀛on is achievable only through repaying these debts.
    Synchronising of these debts with the ac􀀛vi􀀛es in the life is so
    beau􀀛ful that the individual never feels it as burden to repay
    them and the ac􀀛vi􀀛es emerge as natural and systema􀀛c in the
    whole life of the individual. In explaining how to get rid of these
    debts, the Mahabharat proclaims “Rishi-debt can be repaid
    through learning, God debt through Yajna, forefathers-debt
    through Shraddha and Danam, and guest- debt through
    hospitality and service, can be repaid” (ñdmÜ`m`oZ _hm{f©ä`mo Xodoä`mo
    `kH$_©Um & {nV¥ä` lmÕXmZoZ Z¥Um_ä`M©ZoZ M && em§{Vnd© 292/10). Similarly,
    servant debt and debt of dependants can be repaid through
    providing livelihood to them. And through learning of Veda,
    performance of Yajna and offering food to living creatures, one
    can get rid of the self-debt (dmMmefmdhm`©U nmbZoZmË_mZmo@{n M& `WmdV²
    ^¥Ë`dJ©ñ` {MH$sf}V² H$_© A{XV: && em§{Vnd© 292/11). The socialisa􀀛on
    process in the family and the ques􀀛on of primary existence of
    the soul itself, prepares him to be a perfect social being in whom
    the a􀀢tude for service to others takes shape as a natural and in –
    born charateris􀀛c. He makes his contribu􀀛on towards Social
    121
    Work, in his capacity as a member of a par􀀛cular clan and the
    society, and as a part of the whole Universe.
    Further, the two basic condi􀀛ons for the ul􀀛mate salva􀀛on
    are the fulfillment of his du􀀛es envisaged as Dharma and by the
    accumula􀀛on of Punya which is gained by way of service to
    others. But the individual is expected to forget Punya a􀀫ached to
    Social Work ac􀀛vi􀀛es and to undertake them with nona
    􀀫achment as the best method of serving others. Neverthless,
    the concept of Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap (nmn) contributed heavily for
    the Hindu mind to undertake many Social Work ac􀀛vi􀀛es.
    Dr. Radhakrishnan points out “The Hindu code insists on the
    mo􀀛ve of Social Service and not personal gain”35
    People Who Serve For Love
    Ramayana men􀀛ons about the persons who serve for love of
    others. On being asked, Bharat informs the Assembly “I have
    despatched persons who serve for love as well as those who
    serve for money with layers of roads and their keepers to
    prepare my way” (2/82/20). “By their organised work trees were
    planted where there were none before high grounds were
    levelled, hollows filled up, rock cut through, bridges thrown over
    watering expanses and tracts devoid of water made to over flow
    with it”.36
    Care of Parents, Servants etc.
    Mahabharat says “One who eats only a􀁓er feeding the
    servants, the stranger and the feedable in the family like old
    parents, eats Amruta (nectar) only” (_¥Ë`{V{Wf² `mo ^yS>H$Vo ^yH$VdËgw
    gXm gXm & A_¥V§ Ho$db§ ^yS>H$Vo B{V {d{Û `w{X{ð>a && em§{Vnd© & 221/13). As
    per Manu Smru􀀛 (3/116), Yajnavalkya Smru􀀛 (1/105) and
    Parasara Grihya Sutra (2/9/12 to 14), both the husband and wife
    ought to take food only a􀁓er feeding guests, servants etc.
    “One who terminates the hard worker – servant without
    fulfilling his promise to compensate in 􀀛me, definitely goes to
    122
    hell” (H¥$Vme§ H¥${VZX}e H¥$V^ŠV H¥$Vl__² & ^oXo`o ì`nH$f©{ZV Vo do {Za“m{_Z:
    && em§{Vnd© 23/70).
    “One who terminates the teacher, the servant and the
    helpers without any cause, goes to hell”. (CnmÜ`m`m§ûM ^¥Ë`mü
    ^ŠVmûM ^aVf© & `o Ë`O{ÝËddH$mam§ÌrñVo do {Za`Jm{_Z && em§{Vnd© 23/78).
    Again, less pay for more work should not be given to servants
    (H$ma{`Ëdm _hËH$_© ^Vm© _¥Ë` AZ`©H$_ & am_m`U & A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 75). And
    also dismissal of servants without valid reason is decried upon
    (_¥Ë`Ë`mJoM `V² nmn§… am_m`U & A`moÜ`m H$m§S> 75).
    Protec􀀡on to People in Trouble
    It accrues sin to reject protec􀀛on to those in trouble, not to
    feed the servants and dependants as well as killing of birds and
    animals. (eaUmJV_ Ë`mJmo _¥Ëñ`m_aU§ V`m &… {Z `©½`mo {ZdYñV`m _hm^maV &
    em§{Vnd© 34/10 to 13).
    Chandogya Upanishad holds every wise man not to cause
    injury to any creatures (8/15/2) but to protect them.
    Concern Towards Guests – (A􀀡thi Pujanam) (A{V{W nwOZ_²)
    Hospitality to the guests is termed “A􀀡thi Pujanam” (A{VWr
    nwOZ_²) and the guest is treated as God (A{V{W Xodmo ^d & V¡Îmar`
    Cn{ZfX 1/11/2). Ancient literature a􀀫ach much importance to
    this ac􀀛vi􀀛es which can be termed as the prime Social Work
    ac􀀛vity of ancient 􀀛mes. “A􀀛thi” is not realy a guest as the
    person who is invited at the house but a stranger who comes to
    house without pre-no􀀛ce, usuaslly a traveller.
    When the stranger (A􀀛thi) leaves the house without ge􀀢ng
    alms, he takes away the ‘Punya” of the house holder and leaves
    behind his Pap (A{V{Wnd©ñ` ^½Zmemo J¥hmV à{V{ZdV©Zo & g XËdm XdH¥$V§ Vñ_o
    nwÊ`àmXm` JÀN>{V && em§{Vnd© 191/12).
    A􀀡thi Pujanam is like yajna (sacrifice) which is termed as
    Panch Dakshina Yajna. (n§M XjrUm `k) “Providing the guest with
    water for cleaning, seat, light, food and shelter, is termed as
    123
    Panch Dakshina yajna (nmÚ_mgZ _odmV© Xrn_Þ§ à{Vl`_² & XÚ{XV{` nwOmW©
    g `k: nÀMX{jU: && AZwemgZ nd©& 7/12). Manu (4/29) also supports
    the same kind of hospitality. One a􀀫ains great ‘punya’ by
    providing food to a 􀀛red stranger, with happiness and kindness”
    (`mo XÚmXn[a{Šbï> _ÝZ_Üd{Z dV©Zo & lmÝVm`mX²dï> nydm©` Ví` nwÊ`\$b§ _hV
    em§{Vnd© a 7/7).
    Atharva Veda also equates the hospitality with Yajana by
    saying whatever is given to the stranger, is like sacrificing in the
    Yajna (`X dm A{V{W{n{Va{V… EVX{V{W{n{V Hw$ñVo… & AWd©doX & 6/1 to
    62).
    Ramayana calls upon the people to perform A􀀡thi Pujanam
    (àmßVmZ_{V`rZm§ M {ZË`e: à{VnyOZ_² A`moÜ`m H$m§S> & 28/15).
    Manu terms A􀀡thi Pujanam as one of the Panch Mahayajna
    to be performed daily by all house holders (AÜ`mnZ ~«ô_`k:
    {nV¥`kñVw Vd©U_² & hmomo X¡dmo ~{b^m}Vmo Z¥`kmo A{V{WnyOZ_² && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/78).
    Yajnavalkja Smru􀀛 (1/102) and Asvalayana Gruhya Sutra (3/1/4)
    also upholds hospitality towards strangers as one among the
    Panch Mahayajna. Manu decries cooking of food for self only
    (AY g Ho$db ^wS>Vo `: nMÝ`mË_H$maUmV² && _Zwñ_¥{V 3/118). Bhagavad
    Gita endorses this view (3/13) and food must be always shared
    with others.
    Concern Towards old, Sock, Orpnan etc.
    In Mahabharata, the individual is expected to share his
    wealth with due sympathy, with the weak, the orphan, the old,
    the sick, helpless women (H¥$nUmZm`d¥ÕmZm§ Xþ~©bmZwa`mo{fVm_ & X`m§ `
    g§{d^mJ M {ZË`_odmÝX_moXZm_ && em§{Vnd© 228/40). He must always
    share his extra wealth and assets with the helpless and
    distressed (A{V[aŠV¡: g§{d_O|X ^moJoaÝ`mZ{H$MZmZ & em§{Vnd© & 259/25).
    Permanent Livelihood
    “No one is like the virtuous person who finds livelihood for
    the old, the weak, the despaired, the person without livelihood”
    (H¥$em` H¥${VdZm` d¥{ZVjrUm` grXVo & AnhÝ`mV jwÚm§ `ñVy Z VoZ nwéf: g_: &&
    124
    _hm^maV AZwemgZ nd© & 59). Providing help for these less privileged
    persons, is nothing but their total re-habilita􀀛on, through which
    they will earn their livelihood permanently. The term means
    permanent livelihood.
    Manu urges “Do service to the old, the learned virtuous
    person as even Rakshasas (Demons) worship one who serves the
    old” (d¥Ûm§lM {ZË`§ godoV {dàmÝdoX{dX: ew{MZ² & d¥Ûgodr {h gVV ajm{_a{n
    nwÁ`Vo && _Zwñ_¥{V 7/39).
    The Mahabharat proclaims du􀀛es specially of woman which
    include looking a􀁓er the poor, the diseased, the weak, the
    orphan, the blind, the servants the helpless etc.37
    Concern Towards Women
    Ramayana urges to protect women specially the royal
    women and the wives of others. (ajUr`m {deofU amOXmam _hm~b &
    {ZdV© Jvr Zr`m§ naXmam{^_e©ZmV² && AaÊ`H$m§S> & 50/7).
    Mahabharat says “One who decieves the woman who is
    orphan, old, young, minor, frightened and one involved in
    medita􀀛on, goes definitely to hell” (AZmX²`m§ à_Xm§ ~mbm§ d¥Õm§ ^rVr
    Vn{gdrZr_² & dÀM`{ÝV Zam `o M Vo do {Zí`MJm{_Z: && em§{Vnd© & 23/64).
    Care of Children of wrong-Doers
    Atharva Veda calls upon the people to accept the children of
    wrong doers and to help them, to lead a be􀀫er life ({d bnÝVw
    `mVwYmZm A{ÌUmo `o {H$_r{XZ: & AnoX`_ÊZo Zmo h{d[aÝXûM à{V h`©V_² && AWd©doX
    a 1/7/6/10).
    Construc􀀡on of Wells, Ponds etc.
    Individual as the member of the society contributed his
    might in the construc􀀛on of well, ponds etc.
    “One who build public parks, houses, gardens, wells, inns
    and roads definitely goes to heaven” ({dhmamdg`moX²`mZ
    H¥$nmam_g^mànm: & H$àmUm§ M¡d H$Vm©añVo Zam: ñdJ© J{_ZZ: && em§{Vnd© &
    23/99).
    125
    “Dig ponds, prepare garden, do Yajnas and always speak
    truth” (Vñ_mV² VS>mJ§ Hw$dr©V Amam_m§ûM¡d amon`oV² & `OoZü {d{dYoX©k gË`§ M
    gVV§ dXod & AZwemgZ nd© 58/3).
    “Hence construct wells, ponds lakes which will contain
    enough water for all to use” (Vñ_mV² H¥$àmü dmnrûM VS>mJ{Z M ImZ`oV &&
    and Hy$n: àd¥Îm nmZr`: gwàd¥ÎmûM {ZË`e: && AZwemgZ nd© 65/3 and 4). The
    whole chapter 65 of Anushasan Parva deals in details with well
    and ponds of various sizes, capable of holding enough water for
    shorter and longer dura􀀛on and different purposes, for the
    individuals to construct.
    Manu beau􀀛fully narrates about the places where to dig well
    and ponds because these are the places which really require
    these facili􀀛es. He says “Dig wells, ponds, lakes and construct
    temples (res􀀛ng places) on the boarder of villages or touns.”
    (VS>mJmÝ`wXnmZm{Z dm`: àòdUm{Z M & gr_mg§{YfwH$m`m©{U XodVm`VZm{Z M &&
    _Zwñ_¥{V 8/248).
    Plan􀀡ng Trees
    Mahabharat notes that every one must plant trees of certain
    kind, probably which are more shady and having longer lifespan,
    by doing which one gets fame and noble rewards (EVm
    OmË`ñVw d¥jmUm§ Vofm§ amono JwUm{gVËd_o & H$sVuûM _mZwfo bmoHo$ loË` M¡d \$ŠV
    ew^_² & AZwemgZ nd© & 58/294) and the trees planted are termed as
    children because of which heavan is granted (Vñ` nwOm ^dÝË`oVo
    nmXnm ZmV g§e`: & nabmoJV: ñdJ© bmoH$m§ûMm Zo{V gmo@ì`m`mZ& AZwemgZ nd©
    58/27). The trees must be cared like own children, a􀁓er plan􀀛ng
    them near ponds as by Dharma trees are children themselves
    (Vñ_mV² VS>mJo gXd¥jm: amoß`mlo`mo@{`©Zm gXm & nwÌdV n[anmË`mûM nwÌmñVo Y_©V:
    ñ_¥Vm: && AZwemgZ nd© 58/31).
    Manu says “one who destroys plants and trees should be
    punished according to gravity and the value of the tree
    destroyed” (dZñnVrZm gd©fm_wn^moJ§ `Wm`Wm & VWm VWm X_: H$m`m}
    {h§gm`m{_{V YmaUm && _Zwñ_¥{V 8/285).
    126
    In Rig Veda (5/50/7) plants supplying nourishment for life are
    addressed as mothers. Similarly (4/7/6) and also earth
    (10/18/10) is considered as mother.
    Providing for Street Light
    Mahabharat urges for dona􀀡ng lights (XmVmì`m XrnXmZ§ gVV§… &
    AZwemgZ nd© 68/28) which means members of the society are to
    provide street light for the benefit of all. Specifically the householder
    is called upon to provide street light towards evening
    (Vñ_mX² Xrnm: àXmVì`m: gmX²` d¡ J¥h_o{Y{_: & AZwnd© & 100/39). Not only
    the period but also the places where street lights to be provided
    are men􀀛oned “provide street lights daily at foot of the hills,
    near rivulets, near bushes, at temples, at cross roads, at ca􀀫lesheds,
    at Brahmins houses” (house of learning). ([J[aàdVo JhZo
    M¡Ë`ñ`mZo MVwfn`o & Jmo~«mô_Umb`o XþJ} Xrnmo ^y{VàX: ew{M: && AZwemgZ nd©
    98/53).
    Welfare of Others
    Mahabharat says “Your life must be devoted for the welfare
    of others and always be at their service. (`moJ: joûM Vo {ZË`§.. VX`©
    Or{dVVo AñVw _m Voä`mo à{VnmbZ_² && AZwemgZ nd© 61/18).
    But the welfare of others must be without loosing one’s in
    livehood, “protect yours as well as others livehood” (AmË_ZûM
    naofm§ M d¥{Îm g§aj ^maV && AZwemgZ nd© & 61/17).
    Concern For Animals, Birds etc.
    Manu ordains “with due efforts, all creatures must be fed
    daily” (XÚmûM gd©^yVmZm_ÝZÚod à`ËZV: & _Zwñ_¥{V 9/333).
    The author of Mahabharat speaks high of Grihasthashrama
    (J¥hñWml_) and terms the house-holder as the support of birds,
    animals and various other creatures (Mahabharat, Shan􀀛parva
    23/57).
    A bounden duty of the house holder is to offer in the morning
    and evening food to dogs, Chandalas (down trodden or
    untouchable) and birds.38
    127
    Reffering to the term Go Brahmana hitayacha (Jmo ~«m÷U
    {hVm`M&) meaning the welfare of cows and Brahmins, Dr.
    Rashakrishnan says “the term is a symbolic one, the cow is the
    symbol of the animal world and respect for the cow means the
    respect for all animals.”39
    Atharva Veda ordains “take the sick ca􀀫le to the veternary
    Doctors from where it will get cured through proper treatment”
    (Efm newÝËg {jUm{V.. VWm í`moZm {edm ñ`mV² && AWd©doX 3/28/2).
    Dona􀀡ng Money, Land, Houses etc.
    One who provides house, farm, land at the request of others
    goes to heaven ({ZdoeZmZm§ joÌmUm§ dgVrZm M ^maV& XmVma àm{W©VmZm§ M Zam:
    ñdJ© Jm{_Z: && _hm^maV em§Vr nd© 23/100).
    Rig Veda glorifies the act of dona􀀛ng money to poor. “Soma
    protects those who generously donate money to the poor”
    (lrUm_wXmamo YéUmo a`rUm§ _ÝZr{fUm§ àn©U: gmo Jmonm: 10/45/5).
    Further, Rig Veda proclaims “the money and wealth of the
    person who donates money, food to the poor, never gets
    destroyed (CVmo a{`: àUVmo ZmonXñ`Ë`wVm@ n¥UÝ_{S>©Vma Z {dÝXVo &&
    10/117/1).
    Concern for Handicapped, Blind etc.
    “One who snatches everything of the blind, handicapped,
    deaf, is termed as killer of God” (Mjwfm {dàhrUñ` nJwbñ` OS>ñ` dm &
    haoV `mo do gd©ñd V§ {dX²`mV² ~«ô_Km{VZm_² && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 24/11).
    Manu observes “One should never look down upon
    handicapped, deformed illeterate (mentally retarded), nonbeau
    􀀛ful, old, poor and down-trodden owing to their
    disabali􀀛es (hrZm§JmZ{V[aŠVmJm§ {ÝdX²`m{hZmÝd`mo{YH$mZ² & énX²Yì`{dhrZm§ûM
    Om{VhrZmûM Z{jnoV² && _Zwñ_¥{V 4/141).
    For Public Health and Hygiene
    As a measure of public health and hygiene, Manu forbid
    “ea􀀛ng food with scant regard to cloth, bathing without cloths,
    128
    urina􀀛ng at roads (public places), or stacks of ash, and ca􀀫le
    sheds etc.” (ZmÝZm_X²`mXoH$dmgm Z Z½Z: ñZmZ_mMaoV² & Z _w̧ n{` Hw$duV Z
    ^ñ_{Z Z J«mЫZo & _Zwñ_¥{V 4/45).
    Manu says “one who eases out on roads must be punished
    and the roads must be immediately cleaned” (g_Ëg¥OoÐmO_mJHo$©
    `ñËd_oÜ`_Zmf{X & g Ûm¡ H$mfm©nUmo XX²`m_oÜ`§ Mme¥ emoY`oV² && 9/282) but a
    sick person, the old, the pregnant woman, the child are
    exempted from punishment, only that the roads must be
    cleaned immediatly (AmnX²JVmo@`dm d¥Õm J^uUr ~mbEd dm &
    n[a^mafU_h{ZV VÀM eo¿`{_{V {ñW{V: 9/283).
    Atharva Veda says “Maintain Durva gardens in front and
    back of houses implying spaces for fresh air and avoiding
    conges􀀛on and also ponds with lotuses (Am` Zo Vo nam`Uo Xþdu amohÝVw
    nw{fnUr: & CËgmo dm VÌ O`Vm§ hXmo dm nwÊS>arH$dmZ² && 6/106/1). It also
    speaks on ven􀀛la􀀛on for the house make the doors of the houses
    in the opposite” (nam MrZm _wIH¥${Y && 6/106/2).
    Thus, ancient Hindu literature is clear about the Role of the
    individual in the family and Society. Hindu Social Rela􀀛ons is
    based upon his rela􀀛on with God, and on principles of “seeing-
    God and seing-self in all”. Through various Samskaras the
    individual’s personality is moulded to think of his responsibility
    towards society. Varna and Ashrama systems narrates the
    rela􀀛ons between individual and society.
    References :
    1. KANE P. V. : “History of Dharmashastras” vol. 1, bhandarkar
    Oriental Research Ins􀀛tute, Pune, 1935. page 7.
    2. RADHAKRISHNAN Dr. S : “Eastern Religions And Western
    Thought”, Oxford University Press, London 1939. Page 123.
    3. KANE P. V. : Op cit, Vol, II Page 8.
    4. RADHAKRISHNAN, Dr. S. : “Religion and society” George
    Allen & Unwin Ltd. London 1948. page 105.
    129
    5. SATWALEKAR S. D. : “Vedic Sabhyata” Swadhyaya Mandal,
    Satara 1923. page 25.
    6. RADHAKRISHNAN, Dr. S. : Op cit page 106.
    7. BANERJI S. C. : “Indian Society in Mahabharat” Bharat
    Manisha Publica􀀛ons, Varanasi, 1976. page 251.
    8. RADHAKRISHNAN, Dr. S. : Op cit, page 104.
    9. KING C.D. AND COLLER R.M. : “Founda􀀛ons of Sociology,”
    Rinehart Press, Sans Fransisco, U.S.A. 1975. Page 87.
    10. GOODE J. WILLIAN : “The Family”, Founda􀀛ons of Modern
    Sociology Series, Pren􀀛ce Hall, New Jersey, 1965. Page 5.
    11. LUNDBERG GEORGE : “Sociology” University of Washington,
    Harper & Row Publishers, Newyork, 1968. Page 295.
    12. GOODE J. WILLIAM : Op cit page. 1.
    13. LUNDBERG G. : Op cit Page 297.
    14. CHAKRAVORTY H. : “Socio-Economic Life of India in the
    Vedic Period” Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Calcu􀀫a, 1986. page 128.
    15. GOOD J. WILLIAN : Op cit page 10.
    16. PANDEY R. B. : “The Hindu Sacraments” Cultural Heritage of
    India (Edited by Radhakrishanan) vol.II, Ramakrishana Mission
    Ins􀀛tute of Culture, Culcu􀀫a. 1975. page 391.
    17. KANE P. V. : Op cit vol. 2 Page 192.
    18. PANDEY R. B. : Op. cit page 316.
    19. PANDEY R. B. : Ibid page 390.
    20. RAGHAVAN V. : “The Manu Samhita” “The Cultural
    Heritage of India.” vol. 2 page 339.
    21. PANDEY R. B. : op cit page 400.
    22. PANDEY R. B. : Ibid page 406.
    23. LUNDBERGG : Op cit page 309.
    24. SUKTHANKAR V. S. : “Luctures on Rig Veda” (2nd edi􀀛on)
    Oriental Book Agency, Pune 1965, page 166.
    25. PANDEY R. B. : Op cit page 413.
    26. PRABHU PANDHARIMATH : “Hindu Social Organisa􀀛on”
    130
    Popular book Depot, Bombay, 1925, page 75.
    27. RADHAKRISHNAN (Dr.) S. : Op cit pages 130-131.
    28. 27. RADHAKRISHNAN (Dr.) S. : Op cit page 132.
    29. SRINIVAS M. N. : “Varna and Caste” “Social Stra􀀛fica􀀛on
    (edite by Dipankar Gupa) Oxford University press, 1991, page 33.
    30. CHAKLADAR H. C. : “Some Aspect of Social life in Ancient
    India” Cultural Heritage of India Vol. II (edited by Radhakrishnan)
    The Ramkrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute of Culture Calcu􀀫a, 1975,
    page 559.
    31. CHAKLADAR H. C. : Ibid page 567.
    32. CHAKLADAR H. C. : Ibid page 570.
    33. KANE P. V. : Op cit vol. II, page 933-934.
    34. RADHAKRISHNAN : Op cit page 106.
    35. NISHREYASNANDA SWAMI : “The culture of Ramayana”
    Cultural Heritage of India (edited by Radhakrishnan S.)
    Ramakrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute of Culture, Calcu􀀫a 19675, page
    43.
    36. BANERJI S. C. : Op cit page 256.
    37. BANERJI S. C. : Op cit page 251.
    38. RADHAKRISHNAN S. : Op. cit page 129.
      
    131
    Chapter V
    ROLE OF THE STATE AND OTHER
    INSTITUTIONS FOR SOCIAL WELFARE
    Some students of Social policy see the development of
    The Welfare State in historical perspec􀀛ve as a part of a broad,
    ascending road of social be􀀫erment provided for the working
    classes since the nineteeth century.1 Professor Titmuss,
    regarded as one of the most though􀁎ul and s􀀛mula􀀛ng
    commentators on The Welfare State percieves it as the
    collec􀀛ve recogni􀀛on of certain socially determined needs as
    they are manifesta􀀛ons, first of society’s will to survive as an
    organic whole and secondly of the expressed wish of all the
    people to assist the survival of some people. The disadvantaged
    or the less privileged some are taken care of by the whole society
    through the ins􀀛tu􀀛on of the State. The State does not leave the
    poor and the weak to their own fate, it goes to their rescue and
    tries to provide them with adequate and equal opportuni􀀛es to
    develop by themselves. The vision of good life for all is at the root
    of the Welfare State and that dis􀀛ngunishes it from the concept
    of Police State of the nineteenth century. The basic purpose of a
    Police State for its existence was to provide protec􀀛on to the
    subjects and to punish the guilty. The focus of the State shi􀁓ed
    from mere Police func􀀛on to that of welfare func􀀛on under the
    Welfare State.
    Historical Perspec􀀡ve
    Madan2 quotes Purcell “As contrary to the general belief
    that the concept of Welfare State was sudden and recent, the
    growth has been a gradual evolu􀀛on, rather than upheaval”. As
    per Holman it is wrong to imagine that the Welfare State
    dropped like manna from heaven into the open mouths of an
    expectant people, it is rather the fruits of Bri􀀛sh poli􀀛cal genius,
    132
    budding and slowly ripening on a tree which was planted four
    and a half centuries ago.
    The concept as we understand today, is first used to
    describe the Labour Government of Britain a􀁓er 1945.3 The
    collec􀀛ve benevolence provided to the working class led to the
    belief that in the year 1948, the Welfare State was truely
    established in England. Since then, successive Governments,
    Conserva􀀛ve and Labour, have busied themselves with the more
    effec􀀛ve opera􀀛on of the various services, with extension here
    and adjustment there and both par􀀛es in and out of office, have
    claimed the maintanence of The Welfare State as an ar􀀛cle of
    faith.4
    From Britain the phrase made its way round the world, it
    was freely employed usually but not exclusively by Poli􀀛cians
    and Journalists in rela􀀛on to diverse socie􀀛es at diverse stages of
    development. The Welfare State was the fruit of Social
    democracy which was in turn the outcome of the landmark
    Charity movement in Britain.
    As far as India is concerned the policy of the Bri􀀛sh
    regime 􀀛ll 1947 was of lasaize-faire and they were interested
    more in maintaining their poli􀀛cal control over India rather than
    the welfare of Indian people. A􀁓er Independence India
    commi􀀫ed herself to the idea of a Welfare State and sowed the
    seeds formally right in its cons􀀛tu􀀛on, policies and programmes.
    Meaning and Concept of Welfare State
    A Welfare State is a State in which organised power is
    deliberately used (through poli􀀛cs and administra􀀛on) in an
    effort to modify the play of market forces in at least three
    direc􀀛ons first by guaranteeing individuals and families a
    minimum income irrespec􀀛ve of the market value of their work
    or their property; second by narrowing the extent of insecurity
    by enabling individuals and families to meet certain social
    133
    con􀀛ngencies (for example, sickness, old age or unemployment)
    and third by ensuring that all ci􀀛zens without dis􀀛nc􀀛on of
    status or class are offered the best standards available in rela􀀛on
    to a certain agreed range of social services.5
    The term is used to cover both social and economic
    changes like the social change for more comprehensive social
    security-“freedom from want” and “equality of opportunity”
    through educa􀀛onal reform.
    The Welfare State is organised to ensure the well-being
    of its ci􀀛zens and use their resources to that end.6
    Hobman Observes “The Welfare State is a compromise
    between the two extremes of communism on the one hand and
    unbridled individualism on the other and as such in spite of all its
    imperfec􀀛ons, it sets a pa􀀫ern for any humane and progressive
    society. It guarantees a minimum standard of subsistence
    without removing incen􀀛ve to personal enterprise, and it brings
    about a limited re-distribu􀀛on of income by means of graduated
    high taxa􀀛on yet does not pretend to establish economic
    equality among its ci􀀛zens. All are assured of adequate help in
    case of need whether the need is due to illness oldage,
    unemployment or any other cause”.7
    Encyclopaediea of Social Sciences brings out the
    meaning of Welfare State in following words.8
    “The Welfare State is the ins􀀛tu􀀛onal outcome of the
    assump􀀛on by a society of legal and therefore formal and
    explicit responsibility of the basic well being of all its members.
    Such a State emerges when a society or its decision making
    groups become convinced that the welfare of the individual
    (beyond such provisions as may be made to “preserve order and
    provide for the common defence”) is too important to be le􀁓 to
    custom or to informal arrangements and private under
    standings and is therefore a concern of government”.
    134
    Some Parameters of Welfare State
    From the above defini􀀛ons and their comparison and
    contrast with similar concepts like “Laissez faire State” “Police
    State” “Warfare State” “Socialist State” and “Communist
    State”, We can draw definite observa􀀛ons on some of the
    aspects of Welfare State.
    1) It is a compromise between communism on the one side and
    unbridled individualism on the other.
    2) Every ci􀀛zen in the “Welfare State” is en􀀛tled to minimum
    standard of living and his dignity as human being is upheld.
    3) The services rendered are not as charity but as a ma􀀫er of
    right of the receiver and social obliga􀀛on of the State.
    4) Taxa􀀛on properly adjusted to period of prosperity and
    depression and as per economic status of the people and the
    residuary is u􀀛lised for the welfare of the ci􀀛zen.
    5) It undertakes the responsibility to remove illiteracy, poverty,
    unemployment etc and tries to remove other social evils.
    6) It provides social security for less privileged like woman,
    diseased, old people etc.
    7) The State undertakes relief measures at the 􀀛me of natural
    calami􀀛es.
    8) The concept of Welfare State emphasises the need of
    democra􀀛c form of government where people are given liberty
    and freedom in many spheres and also the voice of the people is
    reflected at the State decisions.
    9) Ensuring jus􀀛ce to all, the Welfare State does not leave the
    poor and the weak to their own fate, rather the weak and the
    poor live without clash along with the rich and the strong; the
    minimum standard of living for all is ensured.
    10) The par􀀛cipa􀀛on of people through various groups and
    organisa􀀛ons is of utmost importance for the Welfare State.
    “The true object of the Welfare State is to teach people how to
    do without it”.9
    135
    In short, the Welfare State is one which does not confine
    itself to the discharging of mere police func􀀛ons but takes a view
    of its obliga􀀛ons and undertakes all ac􀀛vi􀀛es which are
    considered necessary and desirable to remove social evils and
    promote the welfare of the popula􀀛on. Whether the State is a
    Welfare State or not depends upon whether it recognises or
    does not recognise this obliga􀀛on.
    State in Ancient India
    In ancient India, the State was usually headed by a king
    who had ministers and other officers to assist him in its
    administra􀀛on. Evidences are available throughout the ancient
    period that popular assemblies were in vogue by names Sabha,
    Sami􀀡, Paura-Janapada, Vidhata” etc. These assemblies were
    comprised of peoples’ representa􀀛ves who could influence the
    policy decisions of the State. The order of princes and nobles as
    also the officials called Sutas and Gramanis who took prominent
    part in the ceremonies of royal consecra􀀛on together with the
    two popular assemblies must have collec􀀛vely exercised a large
    although undetermined measure of influence over the king’s
    administra􀀛on.10
    In those 􀀛mes the ins􀀛tu􀀛on of king was powerful but
    the Dharma had greater influence even on the king and his
    behaviour. The Dharma has laid down do’s and don’ts for a king
    who was bound to abide by it. Bruhadaranyaka Upanishad
    points out Dharma as the king of the kings (1/4/14). The general
    principle was that no one including the king was above Dharma.
    King as an individual carried no authority without Dharma. At
    􀀛mes the Dharma has been defined as one which preserves the
    people and the king was considered to be an instrument of
    Dharma.
    The Ancient literature speaks out how kings who were
    going against Dharma and against the people, were dethroned
    and killed by the people. The king was regarded as the ins􀀛tu􀀛on
    136
    which thrived for the welfare of the people and helped them to
    lead life as per the Dharma. The ins􀀛tu􀀛on of State merged with
    the king and the king as an ins􀀛tu􀀛on was the replica of the
    State. The ac􀀛ons, the behaviour, the quali􀀛es, the guiding
    principles of the king were considered as that of the State. In
    other words, an analysis of the quali􀀛es, behaviour and role of
    the king will bring out the nature of the State in ancient period
    through which the existence of Welfare State can be examined.
    The Meaning of the Word Raja and Rajan (amOm Am{U amOZ)
    The word Raja and Rajan carried the meaning of English
    equivalent words the king the Prince or the Emperor but the
    ideas behind the concept of king differ very much in ancient
    Indian context, as compared to the western ideas about king.
    The word Rajan (amOZ) though literally is derived from the root Raj
    (amO) meaning to shine, it is associated in Hindu polity generally
    with the root Ranj (a§O) meaning to please.11
    The great epic Mahabharat puts the word Raj (amO) as
    derived from the essen􀀛al duty of the king which is to please or
    make the subjects happy (a{OVmü àOm: gdmñVoZ amOo{V eãXVo && em§{V nd©
    59/125). It stresses the aspect of pleasing the subject as the
    prime duty of the king (bmoH$a§OZ _odmÌ amOm Y_© gZmVZ: && em§{Vnd©
    57/11, amOm a‚m`{V àOm: && em§{Vnd© 56/12).
    Atharva Veda proclaims “one who makes the people
    happy becomes king” (amo aÁ`oV VVmo amOÝ`mo Om`V && AWd©doX 15/8/1).
    The epic Ramayana also denotes king as the pleaser of the
    subject. (àOmZwaÄO && A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 3/41).
    Valmiki, the author of Ramayana depicts Dasharath, the
    king of Ayodhya as one who is beloved by his subjects because of
    his be􀀫er administra􀀛on (nmoaOmZnX{n«` : ~mbH$mÊS> 6/1) and as the
    person who is always interested in the welfare of all the people
    (gd©bmoH$ñ` {hVo {Z{dï>: & A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 2/54). and one who strives for
    137
    the economic development of the na􀀛on (H$ë`mU^OZ: gmYwaXrZ: &&
    A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 1/21). Jatayu the bird tells the demon king Ravan
    thatRam is a king who takes care of the welfare of all (bmoH$mZm§ M
    {hVo `wŠVmo am_mo Xea`mË_O: & AaÊ` H$mÊS> 50/5).
    Prajanuranjna is considered to be the primary duty of a
    king. This ideal according to Valmiki was to be realised by a king
    through the employment of wholesome policies, conducive to
    public welfare and by adherence to Dharma. In fact, from his
    ideal king, Valmiki demanded a complete dedica􀀛on to the
    cause of the subjects and should sacrifice his nearest and
    dearest even his very life.
    Manu, expect the king to take care of the na􀀛on for its
    overall development. (amîQ´>Á` g§J«ho{ZË`§ {dYmZ{_X _mMaoV² & gwg§J«hrVamîQ´>mo
    {h nm{W©d: gwI_oYVo && _Zwñ_¥{V: 7/113) and calls him as one who
    strives for well being of the people. (àOmnbZVËnam: _Zwñ_¥{V &
    9/253).
    In explaining the logic behind the ins􀀛tu􀀛on of king,
    Bhishma calls upon Yudhishthria to strive always for the welfare
    of the subjects (àOmZmEÝdodojU_² àdm{hV_² && _hm^maV em§{V nd© 58/69)
    and addresses the king as the developer of the Na􀀛on (ajU§ M¡d
    nmoamUm§ amï´>mñ` M {ddY©Z_²&& em§{Vnd© 59/78).
    King’s Happiness
    Kau􀀛lya, in his Arthashastra men􀀛ons that the pleasure
    (happiness) of the subjects is the pleasure (happiness) of the
    king and the welfare of the subjects is more important than the
    kings personal interest (àOmgwIo gwI§ amk: àOmZm§ M {hVo ZmË_m{n«`§ {hV
    amk: àOmZm§ Vw {n«`§ && AW©emñÌ 2/19). Mahabharat declares that when
    the king strives for the welfare of the subjects, he takes the form
    of sun (jo§ M H¥$Ëdm d«O{V VXm ^d{V ^mñH$a: && em§{Vnd© 68/43). In other
    words, like the Sun which burns itself, the king should sacrifice
    himself for the welfare of the subjects. In Ramayana the simile is
    138
    with the Moon, “Be like a moon in the happiness and comfort of
    the people. (àOmgwIo MÝÐVwb`: am_m`U & A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 2/30) and
    expects the king to posses the quality of becoming happy when
    the subjects are happy (am_m`U & A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 1/32). In fact, the
    king should take care of the welfare of the people with the
    assistance of experts. In Ramayana, when Bharata visited Shri
    Ramachandra to request him to come back to Ayodhya to rule it,
    Shri Ramachandra asks him “Are you making efforts for the
    overall welfare of the na􀀛on with the help of the experts?”
    (n{ÊS>Vmo h`W©H¥$ÀN>ofw Hw$`m©{ZZ lo`g _hV²? && A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 101/22).
    King as the Servant of People :
    Shri Krishna who was the president of Andhaka-Vrushni
    State bi􀀫erly complains to Narada Rishi that he is not the master
    but the slave of the Assembly as he has to listen pa􀀛ently the
    bi􀀫er cri􀀛cisms of the different par􀀛es (Xmñ` _¡íd`© ^mdoZ kmVrZm§ d¡
    H$amoå`h_ & AY© ^moŠVm{g_ ^moJmZm§ dm½Xþê$ŠVm{Z M j_o&& _hm^maV& AZwemgZ
    nd© & 81/5).
    Baudhyana Dharma Sutra declares king to be like a
    servant to the people, the 1/6th share (tax) being his wages (fS²>
    ^mJ ^¥Vmo amOm ajoV² àOm_² && ~m¡Ym`Z Y_© gyÌ 1/10/6).
    Ancient literature envisages the body of the king not
    meant for enjoyment of pleasures; (amkm eara J«hU§ Z ^moJm` _hrnVo) it
    has to put up with great troubles and worries while carrying out
    the royal duty of nurturing the subject and fulfilling the Dharma
    (Šboem` _hVo n¥Ïdr ñd Y_© n[anmbZo) .12
    Ram during his Vanavas says to the inhabitants of
    Ashrama that he is their servant and they can give him orders (Z¡Z§
    Ah©` _m§ dŠV¥ Amkmß`moh§ Vn{gdZm_² && AaÊ` H$mÊS> 6/22).
    Tax in Ancient Literature
    The revenue income of a State largely depends on the
    collec􀀛on of taxes from the subjects. Even when the mode of
    139
    collec􀀛on and number of taxes varied from kingdom to kingdom,
    imposi􀀛on of tax on the subject is universally accepted prac􀀛ce
    of every State. but the nature of tax and the means of collec􀀛on,
    made the difference between a Welfare State and Police State.
    Tax for what? and when? and how much? (during calami􀀛es) are
    the per􀀛nent ques􀀛ons that spoke out the welfare nature of a
    State. Hence it becomes important in the present study to
    analyse the tax structure in ancient India.
    Valmiki, expects the king to accept 1/6th share as tax in
    return to protect the subjects and take care of them like father
    (~{b fS> ^mJ _wX²Y¥Ë` aZ¥nñ`m a{jVw: àOm: & A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 75/25 and
    n[anmb`_mZñ` amkmo ^¥Vm{Z nwÌdV²& A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 75/24). In Mahabharat
    also, the tax is einvisaged as 1/6th share of income of the subject
    and should never go beyond it (AmXr ~{b Mm{n àOmä`: Hw$ê$ Z§XZ& g
    fS²>^mJ_{n àmkñVmgm_odm{^Jwá`o && em§{Vnd© 69/25).
    King must collect the taxes only through proper ways and
    not by force and regard it as his wages for the protec􀀛on of the
    tax payer. (~{b fîR>oZ ewëHo$Z XÊS>oZm`mnam{YZm_² emñÌZrVoZ {bßgo`m doVZoZm
    KZmJ__² em§{Vnd© 71/10). Tax collec􀀛on must be according to
    Dharma (Xmn{`Ëdm H$a` Yå`© amîQ´> ZrË`m `Wm {d{Y: && AZwemgZ nd© 71/11).
    The oldest ancient literature Rigveda expects the
    subjects to pay the taxes regularly and that too voluntarily. (AWmo
    V BÝÐ Ho$dbr{demo ~{bhVñH$aV 10/173/6). Atharva veda proclaims
    that a king gets only 16 percent of the cul􀀛va􀀛on and income of
    the people as tax (`X² amOmZmo….. fmoS>e `_ñ`m_r…. 3/29/1) but the
    tax amount must be u􀀛lised for to fulfill all desires of the subjects
    (gdm©Z² H$m_mV² nya`Ëdm ^dZ²… 3/29/2). Further, in liew of the tax the
    king is expected to provide proper protec􀀛on to the poor (weak)
    so that they need not pay money to the rich (strong) because
    king protects the weak with the tax (`§Ì ewëH$mo Z H«$s`Vo A~boZ
    ~br`go…. 3/29/3) and the mode of collec􀀛on should be scien􀀛fic
    and not forceful (H$aoaemñÌhîQ>o{h§ _mohmV² gåàrS²>`mZ² àOm: 71/15).
    140
    Taxa􀀡on Policy
    In Mahabharat, Bhishma equates the tax collec􀀛on with
    cowheard, milking the cow without injuring the cow’s udder and
    without straving the calf and goes on collec􀀛ng the milk (taxes)
    for a longer dura􀀛on, keeping the cow happy and comfortable
    (D$Y{ÀN>ÝÚmV² Vw `mo YoÝdm: jramWu Z b^Vo nW: & Ed§ amîQ´>_`moJoZ nr{S>V§ Z
    {ddY{V && em§{Vnd© 71/16).
    Another example sighted for the collec􀀛on of taxes is
    that of honey bees collec􀀛ng honey without harming the
    flowers. Similarly the king must collect the tax not in lump sum
    but bit by bit (`Wm H«$_oU nwînoå`{lMZmo{V _Yw fQ²>nX: & VWm Ðì`_wnmXm` amOm
    Hw$duV g§M`_²&& em§{V nd© 120/34) and king should never scold or
    curse the subjects but be happy and blessed in the ma􀀫er of tax
    (Vñ_mX² amOm àJ¥hrV: àOmg¥ _yb§& em§{Vnd© 120/44).
    Giving further examples of tax collec􀀛on, Bhishma says
    that the king like the leech should take in blood mildly. He should
    treat his subjects like a 􀀛gress carrying her cubs, touching them
    with her teeth but never bi􀀛ng them. He should behave like a
    mouse which though it has sharp teeth, nibbles at the feet of
    sleeping animals in such a manner as to keep them unaware of it.
    Again it is laid down that the tax should vary according to the
    capacity of the taxpayers. No tax should be levied without
    determining the profit and the amount of labour needed for
    produc􀀛on because no one can be expected to work without
    incen􀀛ve.13
    In case of increase of tax, the king used to request the
    people “I request for money by way of tax for your protec􀀛on in
    view of the danger confron􀀛ng the Na􀀛on at present and I will
    return you this share when the dangerous situa􀀛on is over”
    (Añ`_mn{X Kmoam`m gàmßVo XméUo ^`o& n[aÌmUm` ^dVm§ àmW©{`î`o YZm{Z&
    à{VXmñ`o M ^dVm§ gd© Mmh ^`j`o&& _hm^maV 87).
    Convincing the People About Tax :
    141
    King must undertake the tour of the country and
    convince the people about the necessity of (increasing) tax
    before its implementa􀀛on and request them to pay it for their
    protec􀀛on (àJdo Vw YZmXmZ _Zw^mî` nwZ: nwZ: & g{ZnË` ñd{df`o ^`§ amîQ´>o
    àXe©`V²… n[aÌmUm` ^dVm§ àmW©`oî`o YZm{Z d.&& _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© 87/26 to
    29). If increase in taxa􀀛on becomes really inevitable, it should be
    gradual and not sudden or steep (AënoZ ^doZ Xo`oZ dY©mZ àXmn`oV²&
    _hm^maV em§{Vnd© & 88/7) and even during economic depression
    when more tax becomes necessary, the welfare out look
    towards the subjects must be held high (Vß`oX`© H¥$ÀN>ofw
    àOm{hV_Zwg_aZ² && _hm^maV & em§{Vnd© & 93/11).
    Tax for Prajapalanam
    In Yajnavalkya smru􀀡, Apararka says that no one ever
    makes a payment without expec􀀛ng a return, the taxes are
    therefore paid only as a return for the Prajapalanam expected
    from the king (gdm} {h YZ§ à`ÀN>ÝZmÝ_g ^mdm{` à`moOZ _wX²{Xe{V…
    Vñ_mËH$a-_mXmZoZ àOmnmbZ§ {dX²`o`{_{V {gX² && dëŠ` ñ_¥{V && 1/366).14
    Prajapalanam is not mere protec􀀛on as concieved in Police
    State. This implies protec􀀛on for the development and the wellbeing
    of the subjects.
    Tax During Calami􀀡es
    Manu, provides for one fourth of income as tax during
    calami􀀛es (MVwW© _mXXmZmo@ {n j{Ì`mo ^mJ_mn{X && _Zwñ_¥{V 10/118) and
    expects the king to collect, taxes scien􀀛fically once in a year and
    behave like a parent (gm§dËg[aH$_mßVol amîQ´>mXmhma`oX A{b_&
    ñ`mƒàZm`namo bmoHo$ dV}V {nV¥dÝZyf && _Zwñ_¥{V 10/80). It has to be
    remembered that extra tax collected should be returned to the
    subjects.
    Tax Expemp􀀡on for Less Privileged
    Manu ordains that the king should never yield taxes from
    the blind, deaf handicapped, senior ci􀀛zen above seventy years
    142
    and one who became poor due to patronage of educa􀀛on (gßV`m
    ñ`{dñaûM `: lmo{V`o fwnHw$d©ûM Z Xmß`m: Ho$Z{MËH$a_²&& _Zwñ_¥{V & 8/394).
    Further, manu provides for the exemp􀀛on from paying toll at a
    ferry for expectant mother, the student, the asce􀀛c etc. (J{^©{U Vw
    {Xd_mgm{XñV`m àd{OVmo _w{Z: &… Z Xmß`mñVm[aH$ Vao&& _Zwñ_¥{V & 8/407).
    Kau􀀛lya recommends that commodi􀀛es intended for
    religious ceremonies and sacraments like sacrifies, marriages etc
    and also the gi􀁓s given to the bride must be exempted from the
    tax (AW©emñÌ 2/21). Further, tax exemp􀀛on has been
    recommended also on the ground of inability in the case of deaf,
    dumb and blind persons, who are ususally poor persons.
    Students studying at Gurukulas and hermits prac􀀛sing penance
    in the forest are not earning members of the society and were
    therefore not to be taxed. Women in early 􀀛mes would hold only
    a negligible amount of property and have therefore been also
    recommended for exemp􀀛on from taxa􀀛on.15
    Labouring as Tax
    Manu smru􀀛 provides for one day labour per month as
    tax from people like carpenters, smiths, loaders etc. who live on
    meager daily wages (H$mñH$m{ÀN>{ën Zü¡d ewX²Ym§ ûMmË_monOr{dZ: &&
    _Zwñ_¥{V 7/138) but it is important that they must be fed freely on
    that day. The same view is held in Gautam Dharma sutra (2/1/31)
    and Vishnu Dharma Sutra. Further, Gautama Dharma Sutra,
    makes it clear to feed them on that day (^ŠV M Voä`mo XÚmV²…
    2/1/95).
    Welfare Outlook in Taxing Commodi􀀡es
    Mahabharat ordains the king to carefully consider not
    only the purchase and sale value or the demand and supply of
    the commodi􀀛es but also the welfare and the economic
    condi􀀛ons even of the employees in the trade while impossing
    tax on commodi􀀛es ({dH«$` H«$`_XdmZ ^ŠV M gn[aÀN>X_² & `moJjo M
    g_àoú` d{UOm§ H$ma`V H$eZ && em§{Vnd© 87/13).
    143
    Varia􀀡on of Tax As per Income
    Tax structure in ancient India was scien􀀛fic in the sense
    that tax was not same for all kinds of people; it varied as per the
    economic level of the payers. Mahabharat proclaims that the
    king must yield varying taxes (CƒdMH$e Xmß`m _hmamOm `w{Y{fR>a: &&
    em§{Vnd© & 87/15) which should depend upon the paying capaci􀀛es
    of the people.
    King’s Pledge for the Welfare
    The Atharvaveda expects the king to take oath for the
    welfare of the people. The king u􀀫ers the words at the 􀀛me of
    corona􀀛on ceremony “I will strive for the welfare of the subjects
    (_h_m`wÚm… amîQ´> gwdra dY©`{_ AWd© 3/19/5). The Sukta 29 of Kanda 1,
    of Atharvaveda, deals with the welfare and development of the
    Na􀀛on. For instance, “I am bound for the welfare of the na􀀛on
    (amîQ´>m` _h`§ ~Ü`Vm§… 1/29/4),” make efforts for the development
    of this Na􀀛on (Añ_mZ amîQ´>m` dY©`… 1/29/1). The Sukta 21 of the
    same Kanda deals with the concept of welfare of the Na􀀛on
    which begins with. ñdm{VXm {dem§&&
    King Vis A-Vis The Subjects
    The king is expected to deal with the people like a
    pregnant woman. Just as an expectant mother sacrifices her
    own desires and pleasures, lest they should be harmful to the
    child to be born, the king must sacrifice his own conveniences,
    preferences and pleasure in order to be of the maximum help
    and service to the people (`Wm {h J{^©{U {hËdmñd§ {n«`_², _ZmogmZwJ_² &
    J^©ñ` {hV_mYÌo V`m amkm ß` ge`_² && AZwemgZ nd© 56/46).
    The Rigveda considers the king as the benevolent
    protector of the subjects like a parent to children (Jmonm Ozñ`….
    F$½doX 10/173/2).
    In Ramayana, Valmiki expects the king to deal with the
    subject like a father to children accep􀀛ng one sixth share as tax
    (`mo haoãX{b fS>^mJ Z M aj`{V nwÌdV² && AaÊ`H$mÊS> 6/11).
    144
    Manu says that king should behave towards his subjects
    as a father to his children (bmoH$ dV}V {nV¥dÝZwfw manu /VII/80). It is
    also stated in the those realm every subject moves fearlessly as a
    son in the house of his father (nwÌm Bd nVwJ{h {df`o `ñ` _mZdm: &
    {dM[aî`{ÝV g amOm amgÝV_: & AZ nd© & 57/53).
    C.P. Ramaswami Aiyer makes a per􀀛nent point in this
    fatherly treatment by observing “from the constant comparison
    ins􀀛tuted between the king and a father in ancient works some
    scholars have come to the hasty and unwarrented conclusion
    that his posi􀀛on was that of a benevolent despot. This is by no
    means correct. The actual concep􀀛on was that the king should
    live for his subjects and not for himself.16
    Elec􀀡on of king
    Elec􀀛on for the posts in government is definitely one of
    the aspects which speaks of the nature of the State, whether it is
    Welfare State or not. Because, for ge􀀢ng elected, the candidate
    must promise to take care of the electorate or the people and
    must fulfill his promise. The electorate or the people become
    supreme and they can decide upon whom to elect considering
    their interest and welfare. Thus a person ge􀀢ng elected as king
    can never do away with the welfare of people. In ancient Hindu
    literature we get ample of instances in which elec􀀛on of king has
    been emphasised. Whether this prac􀀛ce of elec􀀛ng the king was
    just a formality or not, whether such prac􀀛ces were extensive
    and truely implemeted or not, whether the elected king really
    cared for the welfare of the people or not, etc are all ques􀀛ons
    which require separate analysis and answers. But the main point
    emphasised here is that ancient literature spoke of elec􀀛on of
    the kings.
    The oldest literary work in the world, Rigveda expressly
    describes the elec􀀛on of kings by Vishwas at least in one place (V
    B_ {demo Zm amOmZm_ d¥UmZ {~^Vgwdmo Amn d¥ÌmXm{VîR>mZ²… F$½doX&&
    145
    10/124/8). Atharvaveda clearly points out to the elec􀀛on of the
    king-it says “All the subjects have accepted you by elec􀀛on for
    the proper administra􀀛on of the Na􀀛on and to expend the
    Na􀀛onal wealth properly” (Ëdm§ {demo d¥UVm§ amÁ`m` Ëdm{__m: à{Xe: n§M
    Xodr& AWd©doX& 3/1/4). Aitareya Brahmana points out how Indra
    was elected as king among Gods.17
    Elec􀀡on Manifesto
    Atharvaveda men􀀛ons a beau􀀛ful verse which is nothing
    but an elec􀀛on manifesto of a candidate. It reads “By elec􀀛ng
    this person as king, success will be ours, we will progress, our
    health will improve, our strength will be double, our wisdon
    (educa􀀛on or knowledge) will improve, our spiritual strength
    will increase, our Yajnas will be successful, our ca􀀫le will be
    healthy, our children will develop and prosper, the courageous
    persons will remain with us; Hence this person is fit to be
    elected”. ({OVñ_mH$_w{äXÝZ ñ_mH$__¥Ë_ñH$mH$ VoOmo Añ_mH$ ~«åhmñ_mH$
    ñdañ_mH$ `kmo Añ_mH$ nedmo ñ_mHo$ àOm Añ_mH$ dre Añ_mH$&& Vñ_mX_w
    {Z^©Om_mo A_wm`wî`m`U __wî`m: nwÌ _gmo M:&& AWd© doX 16/8/1 to 2). It
    implied that the candidate had some kinds of schemes for the
    benefit of the people for their health and educa􀀛on, for the
    health of ca􀀫le and for development etc and only such a
    candidate need to be elected as king.
    People’s Hold Over King
    Some passages in ancient literature point to the people’s
    hold over the king. The Rigvedic prayer goes “O! king I have
    accepted you as king. You be always with us (Am Ëdm hmf©ÝVao{Y
    Ydm{gVîR>m… F$½doX 10/173/1).18 Atharvaveda used the words king
    and king makers poin􀀛ng to the people (amOmZmo amOH¥$V:&& AWd©doX
    3/1/5). A verse recited at the 􀀛me of corona􀀛on ceremony of
    king, goes on “Let all ci􀀛zens love you” ({deñËdm gdm© dmÀN>ÝËdmnmo…
    AWd©doX 4/8/4). Further, the king is blessed by the words “Let the
    (popular assembly) Sami􀀛 be always with you” (gY«rMrdm` Vo
    146
    g{_{V… AWd©doX 6/88/3) and also “Let the king (kingship) be
    stable” (Y¥dmo amOm {dem_`_… AWd©doX 6/88/1) so that “the whole
    na􀀛on be stable” (amîQ´> Yma`mVm§ Y¥d… AWd©doX 6/88/2) for a􀀫aining
    progress and development. The Atharvaveda makes it further
    clear “Sabha, sami􀀛, army, and the treasury obey the king who
    follows the subjects” (g{dem AZwÊ` MbV²& V g^m M g{_{VûM goZm M gwe
    MmZwÊ` MbZ… AWd©doX 15/9/1 to 3). Taitereeya Brahmana
    proclaims” king always depended on the subjects” ({d{e amOm
    à{V{ð>V && V¡ÝVar` ~«mô_U&& 2). All these point to the fact that the king
    depended on the subject and they had some hold over the king.
    The great epic Mahabharat, also men􀀛ons about
    “Making” (elec􀀛ng) of king who required some good quali􀀛es. It
    says “people elect (make) the person as king who is generous in
    dona􀀛ng, shares the wealth properly with the subjects, bears a
    good character, disciplined in his behaviour and possesses the
    quality of not le􀀛ng down the people” (XmVma g{d^ŠVma _mX©dmonJV
    ew{M_² & AgË`H$V_Zwî` M V OZm: Hw$d©Vo Z¥n_&& _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 93/27).
    The king ought to gain the confidence and trust of people
    residing both in ci􀀛es and villages (nm¡aOmZnXm `ñ_rZ² {dûdmg Y_©Vmo
    JVm: && em§{Vnd© 83/46).
    Thus without much difficulty, it can be safely concluded
    that the prac􀀛ce of elec􀀛ng the king was in vogue and the people
    had some hold on the king even though not clearly defined or
    determined. In such a situa􀀛on, the king can never forget the
    welfare of the people and enough instances are available in
    which the tyrant kings were removed by the people. Altekar
    notes “Governments in ancient India, could eventually reach the
    people and discharge their func􀀛ons mainly through these
    bodies (sami􀀛s) and the representa􀀛ve of the people has a
    decisive voice in them. Kings may impose any number of taxes,
    eventually those only could be realised which the village councils
    could agree to collect.”19
    147
    Welfare Ac􀀡vi􀀡es by the State in Ancient India
    Ancient literature holds the king to be responsible for a
    number of welfare ac􀀛vi􀀛es, like construc􀀛on of roads and
    townships; building of public places and wells and ponds; care of
    old, sick, orphan, widows etc. and patronage of educa􀀛on. In the
    following paras, an a􀀫empt has been made to enumerate some
    of these welfare ac􀀛vi􀀛es of the State in ancient India.
    Construc􀀡on of Roads and Providing Street Lights
    In the epic Ramayana, the descrip􀀛on of Ayodhya, the
    capital city of Kosala kingdom alludes the construc􀀛on of roads,
    their maintenance, sprinkling of scented water daily, street
    decora􀀛on with flags, provision of street lamps etc. (amO_mJ© `Wmo
    am_mo… MÝXZmZm§ CÌ_mZm§ M… ñ\${Q>Ho$a{n… emo^_mZ _g~mK«… amOn`_wÝV__
    {d{dYo nwîno… A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 17/3 to 5).
    Dr. R. Sharma writes “we are casually given to
    understand that Ayodhya was connected by road with
    Angadesa; Mithila; Girivraja, Sringaverapura and Mathura and
    that these roads were maintained in fairly good condi􀀛on so as
    to make possible a chariot ride.”20
    Again in Ramayan itself, the Lanka city is described as
    having properly maintained with spacious roads; and the street
    lights were so much that the whole city looked like a dancer,
    ready for her performance (nmÊSw>a{^: àVmo{b{^ê$Úm{^a{^gd¥Vm_² &&
    gwÝXaH$mÊS> 2/16 ` Vm§ ZîQ>{V{_am§ Xrdo ^m©ñda¡ûM _hmJh¡& `ÎmJmañVZr_¥X²Ym§
    à_Xm{^d^¥{fVm_²… gwÝXaH$mÊS&> 3/18 to 19).
    The Atharvaveda refers to three kinds of roads, what is fit
    for chariots, what is fit for carts and what is fit for foot
    passengers.21
    Kau􀀛lya men􀀛ons the construc􀀛on of the roads for the
    public and special roads for trade and industrialists and ensure
    the safety of traffic and the merchants were compensated for
    ar􀀛cles lost through any the􀁓 in tranist (AW©emñÌ 4/13).22
    148
    Mahabharat calls upon the king to construct highways
    and roads ({dembmZ² amO _mJm© ûM H$ma`rV Zam{Yn: em§{Vnd© 69/53).
    Townships by The King
    The king must develop township with beau􀀛ful squares
    (roads) and markets (MËdamnU emo{^V_² && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 86/8
    {dnUm§ûM¡d `WmoX²Xoe§ H$ma`rV em§{Vnd© 69/53).
    The township must be with proper ven􀀛la􀀛on and light
    (well planned), full of amusement with lots of music and arts; the
    houses must be strong and beau􀀛ful, the singing of Vedas and
    performing poojas to Gods must be done and the Social Fes􀀛vals
    are to be organised (gàw ^ gmZZw mX § ` gàw eñV{Zdeo Z_&² eaw mX` O~ gXmn{w OV
    Xdo V_.² .. em{§ Vnd © 86/1910) and (fS> {dY § XJþ © mñ`m`… em{§ Vnd © 86/4).
    Digging of Lakes, Ponds etc.
    In Ramayana, Valmiki describes Lanka, the Kingdom of
    Ravana, having beau􀀛ful trees, public parks, ponds and lakes of
    various sizes, gardens etc. (nmXnmZ² {dhJmH$sUm©Z² ndZmüV_ñH$mZ²& dmnr
    nm_mXmoËnbmd¥Vm: & A{H$«S>mZ² Xx©e H${nHw$ÀMa: && gwÝXaH$mÊS> 2/11 to 13).
    Mahabharat proclaims that the king must construct
    wells, ponds and lakes for different purposes including irriga􀀛on
    of agricultural land (àdmüdH$nUm§ûM¡d `WmoX²Yoe g_m{deVo² & em§{Vnd©
    69/53) and maintain them regularly by cleaning (g§emoY`oV² VWm
    H¥$nmZ H¥$V nydm©Z² n`mo {`©{^: && em§{Vnd© 69/46) (and also (Ame`mûMmoXnmZ
    ûM à^yVgbrbmH$am: em§{Vnd© 86/15).
    In Rig veda (III/45/3 and VII 49/2) water courses both
    ar􀀛fical and natural are alluded to, from which we may
    reasonally infer that irriga􀀛on of lands under cul􀀛va􀀛on was
    prac􀀛sed.23
    In the abscence of flowing rivers in the vicinity of a
    village, water was supplied from wells (Rigved, I 105/17) which
    were dug deep into the earth and from which water raised by
    means of stone-wheel to which pots were a􀀫ached. (Ame_mMH«$_²
    F$½doX X/10/5 to 7 and X 93/13). There is also men􀀛on of people
    149
    digging lakes for the purpose of supplying pure drinking water
    (F$½doX XI/110/5).
    Care of Sick and Old
    The Mahabharat envisages the care of sick people as the
    duty of a king. King must provide special protec􀀛on and care for
    both physically and mentally ill. (ì`m{YZm Mm{^nÝZñ` _mZgoVoaU dm&
    Y_©kûM H¥$Vk ËdX² {dY: eaU§ ^doV² && em§{Vnd© 104/6).
    The king must provide food and clothes and also
    encourage others to provide the same to the old, sick, orphan,
    weak, homeless etc with due sympathy (H¥$nUmZm` d¥X²YmZm§
    Xþ~©bmVwa`mo{fVm_²& X`m§ M g§{d^m§J M {ZË`_odmÝZ _moXVm_² em§{Vnd© 228/40).
    An ideal kingdom is described as where there is no
    diseases, famine, or problems due to old age (Z Oam Z ` Xþ{^©j§ ZmY`mo
    ì`mY`ñV`m& em§{Vnd© 59/12).
    The king is described as one who removes tears from the
    eyes of old, orphan and disadvantaged (H¥$nUmZm` d¥X²YmoZm§ `XmûM
    n[a_mO©{V& em§{Vnd© 91/38) and king is also described as saviour of
    people in despair and trouble ({dfUmZm§ _mojU nr{S>VmZm§… AZwnd©
    64/27). King is described in Ramayana as one who respect the
    old and serves them (d¥X²YmZm§ à{VnyOH$: A`mo H$m & 1/14 and d¥X²Ygodr
    A`mo H$m & 2/41).
    Care of Orphans And People Without Livelihood
    The king must take care of the people without livelihood
    and personally supervise their maintainance as it is his duty
    according to Dharma (A^¥VmZm§ ^doX² ^Vm© ^¥VmZm_ÝdodojH$:… em§{Vnd© &
    57/18).
    The king must always maintain weak and orphan by
    providing security to them (ZmWmo d¡ ^w{_dmo {ZË`mZmWmZm§ Z¥Um§ ^doV &&
    em§{Vnd© & 85/18).
    The Permanent or Complete Rehabilita􀀡on
    King must take care and make efforts for the welfare of
    150
    the weak, orphans, old, widows (H¥$fUmZmWd¥X²YmZm§ {dYdmZm§ M
    `mo{fVm_²& `moJ jo M d¥{Îm§ M {ZË`_od àH$ën`oV²…. 86/24).
    A permanent and complete rehabilita􀀛on is visualised in
    this verse in which the word “Vru􀀢mcha” (d¥{Îm§ M) is very
    significant and has been emphasised. It means that the king
    must provide for the livelihood for these less priviledged so that
    they can pull on their whole life without depending on others.
    King of Gods Helps An Orphan
    In Rig Veda there is a beau􀀛ful verse which portrays how
    Indra, the king of Gods, rescues an orphan from the ant hill.
    (dm§[a{^: nwÌ_² Aj«dmo AXZm_ {ZdmeZmX²Yma Bd A OÌ`m©… 4/19/9).24 The
    incident speaks the State’s concern towards the orphan and
    probably the reason for men􀀛oning of only few examples is that
    either there is no s􀀛gma a􀀫ached to an orphan or that it was
    natural responsibility of the State to provide help to the orphans.
    Welfare of des􀀡tates
    The king must act like the care taker and must provide for
    the livelihood for those who do not have means for livelihood
    and take care personally, the livelihood of those who have it too.
    (A_¥VmZm§ ^doX² ^Vm© ^¥VmZm_ÝddojH$: AZw & 57/18).
    Kau􀀛lya writes in Arthashastra that the welfare of
    des􀀛stute and diseased is the responsibility of the State which
    offered doles to the orphans, the aged and the infirm, also to
    poor women in the family way (AW©emñÌ 2/1).
    Welfare of Handicapped
    Like a father king must take care of all the handicapped
    like blind, deaf, persons with distorted body, and the persons
    without livelihood (H${íMXÝYm§íM _¥H$m§ûM nJyZ ì`JmZ² ~m§YdmZ²& {nVoZ dm{g
    Y_©k V`m àdm{OVmZ{n && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 67).
    Care of Educated Unemployed
    Mahabharat ordains the king to maintain and keep them
    151
    happy those who are educated but are frightened and depressed
    because of unemployment (` {h dX¡ `² m: H$w bOo mVm h`d{¥ Îm ^`{nS>Vm:& àmß`&
    Vߥ Vm: à{VîR>{ZV Y_:© H$m&o ñ`m{YH$ñVV:&& em{§ Vnd&© 75/32).
    Provision for Doctors and Medicines
    The king must respect and maintain the house builder,
    the carpenter, the astrologer, the doctor etc. (gËH¥$VmûM ñ`nV`:
    gm§dËga{M{H$ËgH$: AZwnd© 86/16). and should preserve medicines
    (Vob dgm Y¥V_. Am¡fYm{Z M… AZw nd© 69/56) and specially maintain
    the doctors who provide for the treatment of poison, cut and
    injury, infec􀀛ous diseases etc. (Am¡fYm{Z M gdm©{U _ybm{Z M \$bm{Z M&
    MVw{d© Km§ûM d¡X²`mZ² d¡ g§J¥hUr`mV² {deofV: AZwnd© 69/59).
    Public Hygiene
    Kau􀀛lya men􀀛ons the efforts taken up by the State for
    public hygiene. Every house was to have a dung hill and an outlet
    for refuse water (AW©emñÌ 3/8).
    Throwing refuse or dirt of a carcass on the road was an
    offence. (AW©emñÌ 3/36). Manu recommends publishment to
    offenders of public hygine but exempts children, old, sick and a
    lady in family way from punishment even if they violate the rule.
    (g_wËg¥OoÛmO_mJ} `ñËd_oÏ`mZmd{X… _Zw ñ_¥{V 9/282 and AmnX²JVmo AWdm
    d¥X²Ym J{^©Ur ~mb Ed dm& n[a^mfUmB{ZV VÀ` emoÜ`{_{V pñW{V: 9/283).
    Welfare of Foreign Ci􀀡zens
    The life of the king is condemned who could not provide
    livelihood to the subjects as well as foriegners who came to the
    country ({YH$ Vñ` Or{dV amkmo amîQ´> `ñ`dgrX{V & Ad¥Ë`mÝ`_Zwî`o{n `mo
    d¡Xo{eH$ BË`m{n _hm^maV em§{Vnd© 138/34).
    Welfare of Workers
    Apat Dharma shastra urges the State or the king to
    assume the tasks of the welfare of workers (Apat Dh. Sa. II/10, 15
    & 25) and relieve them from fear of want. Again, while preparing
    to proceed to the forest, Rama gave specific instruc􀀛on to
    152
    Lakshmana for the welfare of the servants during his abscence
    (Val. Ram. A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> /101/12).
    In Mahabharat, the saint Narada asks Yudhishthra the
    king whether he is providing the worker with instruments and
    resources, enough for four months by way of loans. (ÐÊ`monH$aU
    {YVgd©Xm gd©{e{bnZm_²& MmVwm©ñ`mda gå`H²$ {Z`V§ g§à`ÀN{g &&)
    Kau􀀛lya in Arthshastra writes that it is employer’s
    responsibility to pay the agreed wages to the worker even when
    there is no work which is not the fault of the worker (AW©emñÌ
    2/14) and the State supplied co􀀫on to women workers whose
    guardians were away and later collected the yarn a􀁓er paying for
    it (AW©emñÌ 2/23).25
    Kings Responsibility for Stolen Property
    The king or the State is held responsible for the security
    of the property of the subjects. The king is expected either to
    restore it by catching hold of the thief or to compensate the
    stolen property to its owner from the State treasury. ({dîUw Y_©
    emñÌ III/66/867) (Xod Mm¡ahöV Ðì` amkm OmZnXm` Vw& AXX{Õ g_mOmo{V
    {H${bdf§ `ñ` `ñ` Vw& `mkdbŠ` ñ_¥{V 12/36 and also, _hm^maV em§{V nd©
    75/10). Manu also upholds the same view (XmdÊ`§ gd©dU©ä`mo amkm
    Mm¡aoh²V YZ_² && _Zwñ_¥{V 8/40).
    Care of Prisoners in the Jail
    The king must provide medical treatment and care
    including quarters to the prisoners who must be treated well
    ({M{H$Ëñ`: ñ`mËñd{df`o àmß`mo dm ñdJ¥h ^doV² & {ZÌ©UûM g _moH$VÊ` Ef Y_©
    gZmVZ: && _hm^maV XII/95/15-14).26
    Social Fes􀀡vals
    Interes􀀛ngly, ancient literature men􀀛ons the
    responsibility of the king to organise Social Fes􀀛vals frequently.
    Mahabharat ordains that the king must organise social fes􀀛vals
    (g_mkmoËgd gnÞ_² gXmny{OV X¡dV_²… _hm^maV em§{Vnd© & 86/9 to 10,
    153
    {dhmaofw g_mOofwM…. em§{Vnd© & 69/11) and the king must maintain the
    dancers, magicians, sportspersons etc. (ZQ>m§ûM ZV©H$m§ûM¡d _„mZ²
    _m`m{dZíV`m & emo^`o`w: nwada _moX`oMw _moX`oMwûM gd©e: && _hm^maV em§{Vnd© &
    69/60).
    Kau􀀛lya men􀀛ons Utsavas (fes􀀛vals) and samajas
    (gatherings) as popular ins􀀛tu􀀛ons to be encouraged by the king
    (AW©emñÌ 1/21).27
    In Ramayana also, social fes􀀛vals are men􀀛oned. It says
    “the people in villages and towns enjoyed the social fes􀀛vals”
    (àh²îQ> ZaZmar: g_mOmoËgdemo{^n: && A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> & 101/43). Further it
    clarifies that these fes􀀛val were oriented for the development of
    the na􀀛on (CËgdmûM g_mOmü dY©ÝVo amîQ´> dY©Z: && A`moÜ`m H$mÊS> 67/15).
    Patronage of Educa􀀡on
    Patronage of Educa􀀛on is an important ac􀀛vity of a
    welfare State which aims at the eradica􀀛on of illiteracy and
    envisages higher standard of life for the people through
    educa􀀛on. It is a ma􀀫er of importance to note that such prac􀀛se
    of patronage of educa􀀛on by State, existed during ancient
    period.
    The Atharvaveda expects the king to organise educa􀀛on
    in such a manner that the women and children get be􀀫er vision
    and a􀀢tude (Om`m nwÌm: gwZgm: ^dÝVw AWd© doX 3/4/3).
    In Rig Veda too, patronage of educa􀀛on by the king is
    implied. The verse reads “The king who respect the educated for
    their wisdom, gets help from them in return” (Adñdo `mo d[ad:
    H¥$Uo{V& ~«ô_Uo amOm V_d{ÝV Xodm: && F$ 4/50/9).
    Literacy or educa􀀛on was not limited only to the city of
    Ayodhya during Ramayan period Vishwamitra tells Dasarath, the
    king of Ayodhya that the educated and valourous demons are
    obstruc􀀛ng the Yajnas (dZo Vw ~öe ûMrU} g_mßË`m§ amjmgm: {d_mo & _marMü
    gw~möü dr`©dÝVm¡ gw{e{jVm¡: && Val. Ram. 19/15). In Ayodhya, there
    154
    was not a single person who is illiterate or slenderly read and
    stupid (Z H$m_r dm Z H$X`m} dm Z¥e§g: nwéf: Šd{MV² & ÐdQw> eŠ` _`moÜ`m`m§
    Zm{dÛmÝZM Zm{ñVH$: ~mb H$mÊS> 6/8).
    A. S. Altekar describes the patronage of educa􀀛on in
    ancient India “Educa􀀛on was given free. Kings and richmen
    contributed freely to the establishment of the “Ashramas”. The
    parents had no worry about the educa􀀛on of their children and
    the teachers too had no difficulty about the maintenance of their
    ins􀀛tu􀀛on as money was available in plenty for such ins􀀛tu􀀛ons
    where rich and the poor were treated as equals.”28
    Educa􀀡on Policy
    Educa􀀛on was obligatory for all. There is a famous
    statement in the veda that every one should receive educa􀀛on.
    This educa􀀛on was divided into an obligatory part and op􀀛onal
    part. The aim of educa􀀛on was that of equipping the student to
    play his part as a honoured ci􀀛zen. There is a very interes􀀛ng
    passage in Tai􀀫areeya Upanishad (1/11) that throws
    considerable light as the educa􀀛onal policy of those 􀀛mes. A􀁓er
    the student has finished his educa􀀛on the teacher ordains the
    disciple who is going back to home to “speak truth” and “to lead
    virtuous life” (gË` dX Y_© Ma ) and further advises him as to his
    du􀀛es and obliga􀀛ons as member of society… to live as a useful
    ci􀀛zen.29
    The patronage of educa􀀛on by the State at Ramayanic
    period has been described in the book Cultural Heritage –
    “Educa􀀛on through Governmental aid was so organised that
    each sec􀀛on of the society knew not merely the details of
    fulfilling its on special func􀀛on but also the rela􀀛ve place of its
    contribu􀀛on in the general scheme. In the Ramayana we have
    the instance of the ashrama (hermitage) of Bharadvaja at
    Prayag.30
    There existed ins􀀛tu􀀛ons also for advanced study known
    as Parishads. The most famous Parishad of the 􀀛mes was the
    155
    Panchala Parishad, which was patronized by the philospher king
    of the country, Pravahana Jaivali who daily drove out of his
    palace in his royal chariot to a􀀫end its si􀀢ngs (Chandogya
    Upanishad VII/14 and Brahma Upanishad VI/2/1 to 7).
    Besides these residen􀀛al schools, academies for
    advanced study and circles of wandering scholars given to
    philosophical discussions, there were the assemblies of learned
    men gathered together by kings at their courts. A typical
    examp l e o f s u c h a co nfe re n c e i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e
    Bruhaddaranyaka Upanishad sta􀀛ng how, Janaka, the king
    Videha, invited to his court the learned scholars of the Kuru-
    Panchala country (Br. Up. III/8).31
    The Verse (V/11/5) of Chandogya Upanishad tells about
    the partonage of educa􀀛on by the State. Another example in the
    same Upanishad (at IV/1/2) is that of “Raikva” who had the
    knowledge of highest order, was provided with cows,
    ornaments, chariots and even his daughter by the king Jana
    Sru􀀛, when he came to know about the plight of the learned
    “Raikva”. It further elaborates that there were no hoarders, no
    thiefs, no slenderly educated in kingdom. (… OZ nXo Z H$X`m} Z
    _Ún:…. Z {dÛmZ ñd¡ar ñd¡[aUr Hw$V:).
    The king is described in Mahabharat as “one who revers
    the knowledge or educa􀀛on” (gËH$amo{V kmZm{Z… em§{V nd© /A
    57/38). The king is expected to provide cloths, utensils, food etc
    in 􀀛me to the “Ashramas” where educa􀀛on is imparted (Aml_ofw
    `Wm H$mb§ M¡b ^mOZ ^moOZ_²&& em§{Vnd© & 86/25). Further, the king is
    expected to take care of educators and persons knowing “Vedas
    (…. doXmZ…. {dX²`mñZmVm d«VñZmVm `{X amOm Z nmb`oV && em§{V nd© & 68/26).
    Manu expects the king to venerate the educated persons
    who graduated from the Gurukulas because they (the educated)
    are termed as non-diminishing wealth for the na􀀛on (Amd¥ÎmmZm§
    JwéHw$bm{X²dàmUm§ n¥OH$mo ^doV²& Z¥nmUm_mj`mo ô`of {Z{Y~«÷mo@{^Yr`Vo && 7/82).
    156
    Rehabilita􀀡on of Educated Unemployed
    Mahabharat asks the king to rehabilitate the learned
    persons along with the family who decides to leave the country
    in search of job else where, by providing necessary means for
    livelihood ({ddûMoV V`mJ_m{VîR>oXmË_m`o d¥{ÎmH${e©V: n[aH$bß`mñ` d¥{Îm:
    ñ`mV² gXmañ` Za{Yn && em§{V nd© 89/2).
    Role of Other Organisa􀀡ons
    At this juncture, a discussion on existence, nature and
    func􀀛on of other organisa􀀛ons will be of worth and interest. The
    term organisa􀀛on is used here in the sense of government
    organisa􀀛on or oganisa􀀛on recognised and respected by the
    state as having poli􀀛cal importance. Some authors wish to call,
    these organisa􀀛on as Local Authori􀀛es or Local Governments.
    The purpose of discussion in this study is not to debate upon the
    poli􀀛cal aspect of these ins􀀛tu􀀛ons but to enumerate their
    contribu􀀛on to social welfare. At the outset itself, it will be worth
    men􀀛oning that literature throwring light on the social welfare
    aspect of these ins􀀛tu􀀛ons, is very less usually the poli􀀛cal
    aspect like the cons􀀛tu􀀛on, powers etc are discussed in length in
    the available books.
    Glancing at the Vedic literature, the insitu􀀛ons that
    assisted the state in its func􀀛oning can be listed as SAMITI,
    SABHA, PAURA- JANAPADAS, SRENI VARA etc. The terms Sami􀀛
    and Sabha, in the opinion of the scholars denotes the same
    ins􀀛tu􀀛on. While the term Sami􀀛 is men􀀛oned more during
    Vedic period, Ramayana and Mahabharat use the term Sabha.
    Paura – Janapadas according to K.P. Jayaswal, is the s􀀛ll later
    version of sabha and sami􀀛. Further, Gana type ins􀀛tu􀀛on is
    refered both in Ramayana and Rigveda, Sreni and Vara is found
    exclusively in Ramayana.
    The existence and nature of these ins􀀛tu􀀛ons will be
    discussed in the coming paragraphs while the func􀀛ons related
    157
    to social welfare will be taken up at the end, as almost all these
    have similar func􀀛ons, the difference being only in their size or
    area of jurisdic􀀛on.
    Sabha and Sami􀀡
    Sabha and Sami􀀛 enjoyed a high pres􀀛ge in the Vedic
    Age. Atharvaveda describes them as the twin daughters of
    prajapa􀀛, the creator (Atharvaveda 7/12/1). A rising scholar and
    a poli􀀛cian wished to dis􀀛nguish himself in their mee􀀛ngs
    (Atharvevad 12/1/56) and the most important hope expressed
    on behalf of an exiled king who has succeeded in his restora􀀛on
    is that the sami􀀛 may for ever be in agreement with him
    (Atharvaved 6/88/3). Further, the severe-most curse given to a
    king is that the sabha may not respect him and there by dethrone
    him. Aitareeya Brahmana and Satapatha Brahmana use the term
    sabha and Rigveda refer the sami􀀛 as asocial or learned
    gathering (Rigveda 8/4/9).
    In Ramayana, the poet uses the term Sabha and refers it
    in different meaning in different contexts. At one stage (2/5/22),
    it is men􀀛oned as an “Assembly” which discusses important
    ma􀀫ers concerning the state and the terms samsad, parishad or
    parshad are used inter-changebly for sabha, meaning popular
    Assembly.
    These Assemblies consisted of officials and non officials,
    officials being mantrins, amatyas senapa􀀛, etc while the nonofficials
    consisted of the representa􀀛ves of the people like
    paura-janadas, the tributary kings like Naigamas. Disussing the
    importance of the Sabha, Sharma notes “Thus all the prominent
    interest in the state being respresented, it is obvious that the
    voice of the popular sabha was regarded as the voice of the
    people as a whole.”31 Various references are available where a
    king takes advise and premission from these Assemblies in
    important ma􀀫er concerning state administra􀀛on. In other
    words, these popular assemblies could excert pressure on the
    158
    king within the frame of reference of Dharma.
    Paura-Janapadas
    Dr. K. P. Jayaswal is of the opinion (supported by other
    scholars like Dr. N. N. Law) that the sabha and sami􀀛, were
    incarnated in the form of other ins􀀛tu􀀛ons namely paura-
    Janapadas in the later vedic period. The word Paura-Janapada is
    a compound consis􀀛ng Paura meaning capital and Janapada
    meaning the rest of the kingdom except the capital.
    The paura was perhaps cons􀀛tuted of the represena􀀛ves
    of the various corpora􀀛ons in the capital while the Janapada is a
    body of representa􀀛ves of Gramas (agricultural villages),
    Ghoshas (Pastoral villages), Nagaras (towns) and Pa􀀫anas
    (Commerical ports). Both Paura and Janapada had one inner
    (Abhyanatra) and one outer (Bahya) councils. These ins􀀛tu􀀛ons
    had a say in the mater of nomina􀀛on of the crown prince, and for
    industrial and commercial priveleges for the country. Also the
    king required their consent for new taxes.
    Sreni
    The next organisa􀀛on, very prominently comes to no􀀛ce
    is Sreni. In Ramayana, Ayodhya-kanda refer this term very
    frequently. Similarly, it is very common in Mahabharat, the
    Jatakas, the Arthashastra, the Dharma sutras and Smru􀀛s.32
    Scholars opine that the term sreni denotes a corpora􀀛on of
    people of same or different castes but following the same trade
    or industry. Srenis could frame rules for their own guidances
    which were respected and followed by the state. One Scholar
    refering to the chief of Sreni (Sreni Mukhya) as vithi pradhana,
    calls him as ward-councillor or mayor for muncipal
    administra􀀛on.33
    Naigma Or Nigama
    Niaigama or Nigama is another organisa􀀛on men􀀛oned
    in ancient-Indian literature, which some􀀛mes is referred as
    159
    offshoot of Sreni. In Ramayana and Jatakas the term is much
    frequent. While in Ramayana, it means an associa􀀛on of vedic
    Scholars or an associa􀀛on of Paurah (respected ci􀀛zens), in
    Jatakas, the term signifies an associa􀀛on of traders and
    merchants. This body commanded high respect in the society
    and Naigama Mukhyas, or Naigma-vriddhas meaning
    representa􀀛ves of chiefs of Naigamas used to a􀀫end king’s court
    or assembly on behalf of the Naigamas. The members of this
    body usually associated themselves with the corona􀀛on
    ceremonies of kings.
    Gana
    In the epic Ramayana, Gana term is associated more with
    vanaras (Monkeys) and the Rakshasas than in rela􀀛on to
    Ayodhya or similar towns. Rigveda referes this term at least
    once. (X/34/12). Scholars interpret the term differently like (1) a
    corporate body of individuals formed for a definite purpose (2)
    corpora􀀛on of traders, (3) corpora􀀛on of villages and (4) a
    Federa􀀛on of different groups or communi􀀛es. In the Jatakas,
    the term refers to a federa􀀛on of different kulas. (Families) and
    the senior-most male member of each family became the
    member of Gana Although the func􀀛ons of Gana varied as
    according to the meaning assigned to it, the members were
    highly respected in the society and the king lend pa􀀛ent hearing
    to the members of Gana in deciding ma􀀫ers related to
    administra􀀛on of the kingdom.
    Vara
    Probably the least known organisa􀀛on is Vara. In
    Ramayana, it occurs in the Ayodhya-kanda as a group of persons
    sent by king Bharata to prepare the passage and in this sense it is
    an organisa􀀛on of ar􀀛sans. As per Dr. Dasharath Sharma, in later
    period to Ramayana, the term referred to local bodies, having
    certain muncipal and Judicial func􀀛ons.
    160
    Func􀀡ons of These Organisa􀀡ons
    Very li􀀫le statements are available which throw enough
    light on the exact func􀀛ons of these organisa􀀛ons, without
    ambiguity. Scholars are divided in their opinion about their
    func􀀛ons as the exact meaning of verse or the word in original
    Sanskrit works, could not be made out unanimously Secondly as
    per orientalists the words carry different meaning in different
    contexts and more so, one has to take in to account, the nature
    of the society at the relevant 􀀛me to bring out the true sense of
    the terms or the verse. Neverthless, scholars have given
    arguenments logically in favour of the point of view held by
    them. In any case, the present study is interested in knowing
    welfare func􀀛ons (if at all any) of these bodies.
    Evidences are available to prove that these bodies
    undertook judicial and municipal func􀀛ons, the former being
    given more emphasis. Sabha and sami􀀛 could exert pressure on
    the king to take care of the problems of the ci􀀛zens. Similarly the
    paura-Janapads and later village assemblies also could influence
    the king to great extent to do the services for the society. As
    men􀀛oned earlier, the king was asked upon to undertake
    welfare measures, like construc􀀛on of roads, ligh􀀛ng the streets
    in the towns and villages, construc􀀛ng and maintaining public
    buildings and public parks, providing drinking water facility by
    digging prapas or wells at suitable places, cu􀀢ng of overgrown
    branches of trees but sparing caitya trees etc. All these func􀀛ons
    can be well executed in large kingdom having vast areas and
    villages, only with the help of local bodies or local people.
    Expec􀀛ng to do social services as men􀀛oned above from people
    in general, will be too much of diluta􀀛on of final execu􀀛on. Some
    had to be held responsible. Hence these bodies, referred by
    some scholars as local authori􀀛es were held responsible. It has
    to be presummed that the state took help from these bodies in
    organising welfare measures.
    161
    A term usually a􀀫ached with these bodies is “Paurakaryah”.
    Many scholars like Jayaswal, Dr. Sharma, Dr. N. N. Law
    etc. interpret this as municipal func􀀛on. Unfortunately many of
    them could not further elaborate upon the term, which may be
    due to the lack of enough unambigous references in the original
    works. But safely we can conude that these bodies were held
    high in the society, members of these bodies were from all cross
    sec􀀛ons of the society, these were regarded as the voice of
    public in general, these could exert pressure on the king to an
    extent and were func􀀛oning as local authori􀀛es of the state,
    having municipal func􀀛on. Definitely these were the bodies
    which guided the king in welfare func􀀛ons and carried out the
    func􀀛ons in collabra􀀛on with the other officials of the state.
    Thus, this chapter is devoted for the discussion on the
    existence of the concept of welfare state in ancient India and
    enumerate the welfare ac􀀛vi􀀛es undertaken by such state.
    Welfare state concept is a comprehensive one, in the sense that
    even when some of the welfare ac􀀛vi􀀛es are not run by the
    state, s􀀛ll it is termed as Welfare State. In other words there is no
    single opinion as to what are the ac􀀛vi􀀛es and programmers that
    are required to term a par􀀛cular state as Welfare State. If a State
    takes upon itself the responsibili􀀛es of welfare of its people and
    frame policies and programmes in this direc􀀛on, thereby
    recogonising welfare as its main func􀀛on which differ from
    “Police” func􀀛on, then such a state is on its way to reach the so
    called final stage of welfare state.
    In ancient India, concept of welfare state in its
    contemporary sense, did exist and the ancient states strived for
    the overall welfare of its people. The state represented by king as
    its chief administrator was held responsible for various welfare
    measures. The meaning of the term (king) itself shows that the
    king’s prime duty was to keep the subjects happy and
    contended. The taxa􀀛on policy, the amount of tax, the tax
    162
    exemp􀀛on rules, proper means of tax collec􀀛on as concevied in
    the ancient literature are all similar to the modern welfare state.
    The tax collec􀀛on was never forceful rather the king was
    expected to request and convince the people touring the whole
    country and the extra taxes collected at the 􀀛me of calami􀀛es
    must be returned to the subjects. The posi􀀛on of the king,
    combined with the func􀀛oning of popular assemblies like Sabha
    and Sami􀀛 along with other aspects, bring home the hold of
    people over the state which can never, forego the welfare of the
    people. The ancient texts enumerated various welfare func􀀛ons
    of the state which included, construc􀀛on of roads and
    townships; providing street light and water for drinking and
    irriga􀀛on; maintenance of trees, gardens and public buildings;
    care of old, sick, orphan and widows, provision for educa􀀛on and
    health; organising of Samaj Utsavas (Social fes􀀛vals) care
    towards prisoners and foreigners etc. which all points towards
    the welfare outlook of the ancient states. All these ac􀀛ons were
    termed as “Raja Dharma” or obligatory du􀀛es of king or state
    and the “Dharma” was binding on all including the state and the
    king.
    To put it in short “all round welfare of the public was
    clearly regarded as the chief aim of the state during the vedic and
    upanishadic ages”.34 The ancient literature lay down a high
    standard for the king’s du􀀛es. Not only is he required to provide
    for an extensive system of state relief to the indigent the helpless
    and the learned but also enjoined to keep before him the
    objec􀀛ve of securing for his subjects freedom from want and
    fear.35
    References :
    1. TITMISS, M. RICHARD : “Essays on the Welfare State” George
    Allen and Unwin Ltd. London (3rd edi􀀛on) 1976. Page 34.
    2. MADAN, G. R. : “Welfare State and problems of Democra􀀛c
    163
    planing” Allied publishers, Cultu􀀫a 1972. Page 4.
    3. BRIGGS ASA : “The Welfare State in Historical Perspec􀀛ve”
    “Social Welfare Ins􀀛tu􀀛ons” (edited by Zald M. Mayer) John
    Wiley and Sons Inc; London 1965. Page 37.
    4. TITMISS, M. RICHARD : Op cit Page 34.
    5. BRIGGS ASA : Op cit page 43.
    6. MARSHALL BRICE : “The coming of Welfare State” “George
    Allan and Unwin Ltd. London, 1951. Page 293.
    7. HOBMAN D. L. : “The Welfare State” Unwin Ltd. London,
    1953. Page 1.
    8. SILLS L. DAVID : “Encyclopaedia of Social Science” Vol. 15,
    Macmiltam Publishers, London 1972. Page 512.
    9. WEDDERBURN D. : “Facts and Theories of the Welfare State”
    “Social Administra􀀛on” (edited by Birrdl, W.D.), Pengvin Books
    Ltd, 1973, England Page 47.
    10. GHOSAL U. N. : “Poli􀀛cal Organisa􀀛on : The Monarchial
    States” “Cultural Heritage of India” (edited by Radhkrishnan)
    Vol. II, The Ramkrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute of Culture, Culcu􀀫a
    1975. Page 467.
    11. Jayaswal K. P. : “Hindu Polity” “Bu􀀫erworth and Company
    Ltd. Culcu􀀫a 1924. Page. 189.
    12. Altekar (Dr.) A. S. : “State and Government in Ancient India”
    Mo􀀛lal Banaraidass, Delhi, 1958. Page 98.
    13. AIYAR RAMASWANI C.P. : “Some Aspects of Social and
    Poli􀀛cal Evolu􀀛on in India” Cultural Heritage of India” (edited by
    Radhkrishnan S.)” Vol. II, Ramakrishana Mission Ins􀀛tute of
    Culture, Calcu􀀫a, 1975 Page 503.
    14. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 97.
    15. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 267.
    16. AIYAR RAMASWAMI C. P. : Op cit Page 501.
    17. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 313.
    18. SATWALEKAR S. D. : “Vedic Sabhyata.” Swadhay Mandal,
    Satara, 1945. Page 47.
    164
    19. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 103.
    20. SHARMA R. : “Poli􀀛cal Condi􀀛ons in Ramayana” Mo􀀛lal
    Banarasidas, Delhi, 1971. page 363.
    21. RAJA K. C. : “Vedic culture” “Cultural heritage of India”
    (edited by Radha Krishan (Dr. S) Vol. I. Ramkrishna Mission
    Ins􀀛tute of Culture, Calcu􀀫a 1975. Page 215.
    22. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 332.
    23. SUKTHANKAR V. S. : “Lectures on Rig Veda” Oriental Book
    Agency, Poona (2nd edi􀀛on) 1926. Page 165.
    24. DAS ABHINASHCHANDRA : “Rig Vedic Culture” U. N. Dhur
    and Company, Calcu􀀫a, 1925. Page 127.
    25. CHAKRAVORTY H. : “Socio-Economics Life of India in the
    Vedic Period” Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Culcu􀀫a 1986. Page 134.
    26. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 332.
    27. ALTEKAR A. S. : ibid Page 297.
    28. AIYAR RAMASWAMI C. P. : Op cit Page 504.
    29. ALTEKAR A. S. : “Vedic Society” Cultural Heritage of India
    Vol. I (edited by Radhakrishan) Ramakrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute,
    Calcul􀀫a, 1975. Page 219.
    30. ALTEKAR A. S. : Ibid page 218.
    31. NISHREYASANANDA SWAMI : “The culture of the Ramayana”
    cultural Heritage of India Vol. II (edited by Radhakrishna)
    Ramakrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute Calcu􀀫a 1975. Page 36.
    32. MUKHERJI RADHAKUMUD : “Ancient Indian Educa􀀛on”
    “Cultural Heritage of India” (edited by Radhakrishnan)
    Ramkrishna Mission Ins􀀛tute of Culture. Culcu􀀫a, 1975. Page 644.
    33. MUKHERJI RADHAKUMUD : Ibid 645.
    34. SHARMA R. : Op cit Page 339.
    35. SHARMA R. : Op cit page 372.
    36. MUKHERJI R. K. : “Local Government in Ancient India”
    Mo􀀛lal Banaridass, Delhi 1956.
    37. ALTEKAR A. S. : Op cit Page 48.
    38. GHOSHAL U. N. : Op cit Page 469.
    165
      
    Chapter VI
    ANCIENT CONCEPTS :
    THEIR RELEVANCE TODAY
    Ancient concepts related to Social Work and their
    prac􀀔ces can s􀀔ll be observed among the tribal communi􀀔es in
    India, because tribals have preserved their tradi􀀔onal culture
    and they are not much exposed to industrial civiliza􀀔on. We
    consider some of the tribals as primi􀀔ve communi􀀔es which is
    true looking at their socio-economic condi􀀔ons but from their
    socio-cultural context, they s􀀔ll maintain the advanced
    tradi􀀔ons of ancient 􀀔mes. Many of these tradi􀀔ons are helpful
    for the smooth func􀀔oning of the society and these can act as
    guidelines even for the most advanced socie􀀔es. These tribals
    are not polluted with outside customs and hence whatever
    tradi􀀔ons exist in them today, can be safely presumed to be
    belonging to the period when ancient Indian Philosophical texts
    were compiled. Hence the relevance of ancient concepts need to
    be analysed from the background of the tribal customs.
    Moreover, some ancient concepts s􀀔ll have relevance in
    the prac􀀔ce of modern Social work, as it may get enriched by the
    ideas, concepts and prac􀀔ces of ancient Social Work tradi􀀔ons.
    This chapter is devoted to analyse the relevance of ancient
    concepts from the above point of view.
    A􀀙thipujanam – Hospitality Towards Guests
    Perhaps, the most important ancient tradi􀀔on of Social
    Work prac􀀔ce lies in the concept of A􀀔thipujanam-hospitality
    towards guests and this concept is the basic source from which
    the mentality of “Service to Other” originated. Even today, this
    prac􀀔ce of hospitality towards the guests can be observed
    throughout the length and breadth of India and many families,
    specially in villages are following this tradi􀀔on ceaselssly, with
    due care and a􀀬en􀀔on. There are people who adhere to the
    166
    concept of Vighashasi (ea􀀔ng food a􀀯er others have taken food)
    and those who cook food not only for the members of the family
    but also for guests who may come to the house without preno
    􀀔ce.
    There are ins􀀔tu􀀔ons like temples and Dharamashalas
    which undertake community feeding to all those who assemble
    at meals 􀀔me. Occassionally group of people come together to
    organise community feeding on some fes􀀔vals or on other
    community programmes.
    In many villages, guests coming to the village are treated
    like guests of the whole village. All the families contribute to feed
    them and share the responsibility of the comforts of the guests.
    Explaining in great details the life of the Madia Gonds in
    Bhamragad of Maharashtra, Dr. S. G. Deogaonkar notes about
    the “Youth Dormitory-Ghotul”. “The Madia have Ghotuls in every
    village. These days in almost all villages, the Ghotul is used as a
    res􀀔ng place for visitors. O􀀯en it is observed that touring officers
    or other guests stay in Ghotuls. At least for one or two days they are
    treated as the guests of the village. People collect some grain and
    send it to the guest. Normally there is a chowkidar (Watchman) for
    the Ghotul who prepares food (for the guests).”1
    Thus, the concept of A􀀔thipujanam is s􀀔ll relevant and
    some modifica􀀔ons may be necessary as concieved by
    Sarvodaya leader, Shri Vinoba Bhave through his idea of
    “Akshaya Patra” and as prac􀀔sed by some organisa􀀔ons like
    Vivekananda Kendra, Nagpur chapter- an all India Organisa􀀔on.
    This organisa􀀔on appeals to the people to keep daily, a handful
    of rice and other grains separately which is collected periodically
    by the organisa􀀔on and handed over to some or the other
    orphanages or welfare ins􀀔tu􀀔ons. The quan􀀔ty of grains thus
    collected is really of much help for such welfare ins􀀔tu􀀔ons and
    at the same 􀀔me people dona􀀔ng it can get the sa􀀔sfac􀀔on of
    “A􀀔thipujanam” as well as of fulfilling a small part of their
    167
    responsibility towards the society.
    The Concept of Vruksha Danam-Plan􀀙ng of Trees
    The ecological concern of the people all over the world is
    well known and in this background, the ancient concept of
    Vruksha Danam or plan􀀔ng of trees for others becomes more
    relevant. In ancient 􀀔mes the trees were planted for the sake of
    shade specially for the travellers but trees were held to be “Sons”
    and were looked a􀀯er very carefully.
    Today, ecological concern urges the people to plant the
    trees to save the earth and for the survival of the new
    genera􀀔ons to come. Plan􀀔ng one or two trees by a single
    individual may look minor act of serving the purpose but each
    and every individual plan􀀔ng even a single tree, can bring a great
    effect which becomes evident from the mo􀀬o of the ecological
    concern- “Think Globaly and Act Locally”.
    Many tribal communi􀀔es in India, have the custom of
    plan􀀔ng the trees during some or the other rituals. The Gonds,
    the Korkus and the Munda group of communi􀀔es have this
    custom of plan􀀔ng trees during marriage ceremonies. “Tree is
    another important object of worship…. par􀀔cularly the Salai
    Boswellia Serrata has a central place pantheon of tribal ritual.
    The Gonds consider it as an abode of Lord Persapen i.e.
    Bada-Deo and a branch of this tree or pillar carved out of it,
    forms the central pillar the Mund around which marriage is
    solemnised. The peculiarity of this tree is that it grows very fast
    even from a stump and we have observed an old marriage Mund
    growing branches and becoming tree. The foresight of the
    ancestors of these tribals in selec􀀔ng the stump of the Salai tree
    for every marriage is laudable because, with every marriage a
    new tree can be grown.
    Trees even occupy a prominent place in tribal mythology
    and folklore which is a recogni􀀔on by the tribals of the important
    role tradi􀀔onally played by the trees for food, shelter, clothing,
    168
    medicine and total existence of their community”.2
    Wri􀀔ng on the Religious Prac􀀔ces in a Santal Village in
    West Bengal, Biswanath Banerjee3 notes that during the
    celebra􀀔on of Karma fes􀀔val, youth of the village collect
    branches from the karma tree from the forest and plant these
    branches cermoniously in the village.
    Kamaladevi Cha􀀬opadhyay4 notes on the Khasis of
    Meghalaya, who keep special land under the ownership of the
    whole village, on which the sacred groves stand and it is an
    offence to cut these trees.
    Thus, concern for ecology through plan􀀔ng of trees can
    be made more relevant at least in India, if the plan􀀔ng trees may
    be termed as Danam and the a􀀬achment to trees by terming
    them as Sons.
    The concept Danam and its prac􀀔ce to the le􀀬er and
    spirit carry significance and relevance even today. Many of the
    welfare agencies are run by Non-Governmental Organisa􀀔ons
    for the benefit of the less-privileged persons of our society.
    These organisa􀀔ons largely depend upon rich people for huge
    dona􀀔ons. It is sad to note that the inmates of these welfare
    agencies are usually Paraded in front of these ‘Generous’ donors
    when they visit these agencies.
    The inmates or the final beneficiaries of these dona􀀔ons
    are thereby not treated with dignity and honour. The message
    that they are less fortunate and they depend on the ‘Mercy’ of
    these donors, is knowingly or unknowlingly conveyed to these
    less privileged inmates.
    The ancient texts call upon the donor to donate with full
    diginity towards the reciever, otherwise the act of dona􀀔ng does
    not amount to ‘Danam’ and the donor also goes to hell. Indians
    can easily understand the language of ancient texts, as they
    revere these texts and wish to follow a life according to them. If
    this message of honouring the receiver is conveyed to the
    169
    donors in proper perspec􀀔ve, chances are more that Indian
    donors will live up to it and will feel the sa􀀔sfac􀀔on of making
    dona􀀔ons as per the ancient texts.
    The prac􀀔ce of ‘Gupta Danam’ in which the donor’s
    name is not publicised, is another kind of dona􀀔on, very helpful
    in this direc􀀔on. At the same 􀀔me, the less fortunate persons will
    feel that the society is taking care of them; as according to
    ‘Dharma’ the rich is required to share his Social responsibility by
    making generous dona􀀔ons.
    The Dharma base of Danam need to be emphasised and
    at least Indian donors will follow this willingly and happily.
    Widow Rehabilita􀀙on
    Ancient texts speak of peculiar way of widow
    Rehabilita􀀔on in which the widow is married to the younger
    brother of the deceased or begets a son from the younger
    brother or a distant rela􀀔ve who mates with her for once under
    strict condi􀀔ons like applying clarified bu􀀬er thoughout the
    body and not u􀀬ering any word. A son thus bege􀀬ed looks a􀀯er
    the widow during her oldage.
    The widow remarriage preferrably by the younger
    brother of the deceased can be observed in many tribal
    communi􀀔es. The Madia Gonds,5 the Bhil6, the Andamanese7
    etc. follow this way of re-habilita􀀔on through second marriage.
    Probably the rehabilita􀀔on by way of bege􀁈ng a son is not in
    vogue which may be because of the misuse of such procedure
    rather than helping the hapless widow.
    The Concept Yajna
    The ancient concept “Yajna” defenitely is not limited to
    the meaning of sacrifice through fire. It is a Social ac􀀔vity
    undertaken by all members of a par􀀔fcular group or village for
    the collec􀀔ve good of all, through mutual help and co-opera􀀔on.
    Such social ac􀀔vi􀀔es are s􀀔ll in prac􀀔ce among Tribal
    communi􀀔es.
    170
    K. L. Bhowmik notes on the mutual help and coopera
    􀀔on and collec􀀔ve ac􀀔ons of the Naga Tribes. “At the 􀀔me
    of establishing village, each class takes a por􀀔on of land in and
    around the village and holds the same as common clan-land.
    Generally the en􀀔re village or a Khel cul􀀔vates in one block or on
    a hill slope. The friends and neighbours help each other in
    harves􀀔ng the crops. The animals killed during the collec􀀔ve
    hun􀀔ng are brought to the village and are equally distributed
    among all the families in the village.”8 “The Gonds also hold the
    land in common and the youth dormitory is held as a communal
    property.”9
    In the concept Yajna there is a men􀀔on of Yajna Shishta
    Anna which is the food le􀀯 a􀀯er offering to Gods and others.
    Many tribals in India follow this prac􀀔ce of offering food to other
    and ea􀀔ng only at the end.
    The Oraon tribe,10 the Andamanese,11 the Kham􀀔s of
    Arunachal Pradesh12 etc. follow such prac􀀔ce.
    Certain tribal communi􀀔es announce self-declared
    holidays on some days on which no member of the community
    goes to work and remain in the village. The Polo of Madia Gonds
    and “Genna’ of Naga tribes are such holidays. These holidays are
    u􀀔lised in undertaking common work of the community.
    Everyone joins hand in building the outer wall of the village or in
    renova􀀔ng the public places or even in cleaning the village.
    If a poor member or old person finds it difficult to repair
    his house or undertake some work in the field, these holidays are
    declared and all the members come to the rescue of the poor
    member and render self-less service to him. The tribals might
    not have termed these ac􀀔vi􀀔es as ‘Yajnas’ but they are very well
    akin to the concept of Yajna.
    Moreover, the ideas or values behind the concept Yajna
    can be of immense use in the prac􀀔ce of Social Work even today.
    The Yajna concept conveys the ideas or values such as 1) Selfless
    171
    ac􀀔on 2) Mutual Co-opera􀀔on 3) Collec􀀔ve good of all etc. These
    need to be imbibed in the minds of social workers who man the
    welfare agencies.
    The social ac􀀔vi􀀔es undertaken by the agencies are
    nothing short of Yajna which must be conveyed to all those
    connected with these agencies in par􀀔cular and the whole
    society in general. Many welfare agencies fail to produce results
    which may be because of the ego or self mentality of the office
    bearers of these agencies or the ac􀀔vi􀀔es are undertaken by a
    single influen􀀔al office bearer without taking into confidence
    others in the agency. Self-less mentality with mutual coopera
    􀀔on with the inten􀀔on of collec􀀔ve good of all, will
    definitely help the welfare agency for achieving new heights in
    the service of the less privileged.
    Deepa Danam – Providing Street Lights
    The ancient concept of Deepa Danam is s􀀔ll in vogue in
    many Hindu families. A light is kindled in the evening and placed
    near the “Tulsi” plant which used to be in front of the house and
    nearer to the fence or boundary of the front yard. This light is of
    immense help to the passers by, specially in villages where
    modern electric lights are yet to come. Possibly, this is a symbolic
    ac􀀔vity of providing “Deepa Danam” of ancient 􀀔mes.
    Concepts From Bhagavad Gita
    The Bhagavad Gita is considered as the essence of
    Vedanta because it sums up all that is described in detail in
    Vedanta. Hence, the Bhagavad Gita influences the Hindu psyche
    more than any other ancient text and even of today, many
    Indians hold it in high esteem. It men􀀔ons a number of concepts
    which are s􀀔ll relevant for the psycho-Social aspect of human
    life. A few concept namely Samadarshi, Samabudhi,
    Sthitaprajna, Anasak􀀙 require more a􀀬en􀀔on because of their
    relevance from modern Social Work point of view.
    The chapters 5 and 6 of Bhagavad Gita bring out the
    172
    concept of Samadarshi and Samabudhi. In nutshell, Samadarshi
    is a person who never makes any discrimina􀀔on in his out look
    towards, any one on the basis of his caste, creed or educa􀀔on
    and shows no discrimina􀀔on even towards animals. And the
    concept. Samabudhi expects the individual not to show any
    discrimina􀀔on among a friend, an enemy, a mediator, a sinner, a
    rela􀀔ve etc. These two concepts urge to evolve an approach of
    non-discrimina􀀔on in dealing with individuals. The modern
    Social work, expects the Social worker to adhere to the first
    principle of Social Work, namely principle of acceptance in
    dealing with the clients. This principle says that the clients must
    be accepted without any discrimina􀀔on of whatsoever and the
    problems of the client need to be considered with empathy.
    The above two concepts bring home the same point of
    view. In other words, the present day Social Work, can imbibe in
    himself the above two concepts in his dealing with the client.
    The concept Sthitaprajna and Anasak􀀙 are explained in
    chapters 2 and 4 of Bhagavad Gita. Sthitaprajna is a person who
    controls his mind, never a􀀬aches importance to desire or greed,
    never gets, over joned by happiness or comfort, nor get
    desperate by difficul􀀔es, and one who never get daunted by
    anger, fear etc. The concept Anasak􀀔 urges to undertake any
    Work, without a􀀬achment, without looking at the reward or
    return; to work with more vigour and energy because nonreward
    should never lead to non-work and because value of
    reward not being the criterion for the degree of efforts to be
    undertaken for the work, maximum efforts must be done at all
    the 􀀔mes. He must have self-control and self-mo􀀔va􀀔on and
    never leave the work half-way through and never allow anger or
    passion to dominate his work.
    The modern Social Work speaks out the principle of
    ‘controlled Emo􀀔onal Involvement’ for a Social worker in his
    prac􀀔ce. The principle says that the Social worker should
    173
    deliberately avoid mixing up of his emo􀀔ons in dealing with the
    clients as it may hamper the whole work. The Social worker
    ought to have control over his involvement so that the process of
    helping the client will not be biased and objec􀀔vity will be
    maintained. The above two concepts bring out more or less the
    same idea and also highlight the point that the work should
    never be undertaken out of fear or favour from any corner. A
    Social worker, specially employed by private welfare agencies
    can emulate the above point of not working under fear or favour.
    Further, at least in India, when the Social Work is termed
    as a profession, the ques􀀔on of ge􀁈ng reward or pay for Social
    Work, does not appeal to the public mind because tradi􀀔onally
    Social Work is considered to be a selfless ac􀀔vity. Many Social
    Work educators in India and abroad, have deliberated upon this
    aspect of payment of salary or fees for a Social worker. The
    principles from Bhagavad Gita, urge not to look at the reward but
    to undertake the work with more enthusiasm and guarantees
    that a reward is definite for all good ac􀀔ons.
    This brings home the point that the social worker never
    decides about his dealings with the client looking at the paying
    capacity of the clients and he should render his services without
    discrimina􀀔on to rich or poor. And to the ques􀀔on of livelihood
    for the Social Work, Bhagavad Gita says that the reward is
    definite to follow the good ac􀀔on and that, it urges all to fulfill
    their recrprocal responsibility for the favour received from other
    with proper rewards. The ancient texts condemn non-rewarding
    or helping in return of a person who helped earlier.
    Thus many of the ancient concepts s􀀔ll hold good in the
    prac􀀔ce of Social Work and what is required is some more
    interpreta􀀔on and analysis in this direc􀀔on and linking the
    ancient concepts to the prac􀀔ce of Social Work to bring out their
    relevance.
      
    174
    Chapter VII
    BUNCH OF THOUGHTS ON THE ESSENCE OF
    ANCIENT SOCIAL WORK
    The doctrine of ‘Service unto others’ is deeply embeded
    in Hindu Philosophy which also evolved easy ways and means for
    the individual to actually prac􀀔se it, throughout the whole life.
    Hindu Philosophy envisaged nothing less than the total welfare
    of all living beings in the Universe. It proclaimed “Let all be happy
    and comfortable, let all be healthy, let all see (experience) holy
    and auspicious environment and let no one feel any kind of
    sorrow (gdm}{n gw{IZ: gÝVw & gd} gÝVw {Zam_`m: && gd} ^Ðm{U ní`ÝVw && _m
    H${íMV Xþ:I ^mJ^doV &&) and for the Hindu individual the whole
    Universe is his family (dgwY¡d Hw$Qw>å~H$_²). The individual strived for
    the welfare of the Universe as he prayed to God “O! Vishnu Give
    us wisdom for the welfare of the Universe”. (Ëd§ {d îUmo: gw{V
    {doeOÝ`m_ AàÀ`wVm_od` _{V Xm:) Ancient texts urged all to raise
    money by hundred hands and to distribute money by thousand
    hands (eVhñV g_mha ghñÌhñV g{H$a) and the individual was
    determined to hold the nobility wisdom which is for the welfare
    of the whole Universe (Amh§ d¥Uo g_{V {doeOÝ`m_).
    The structure and the system of the ancient society was
    conducive to Social Work which was based on mutual help and
    co-opera􀀔on. Individual was provided with full freedom and
    ecouragement for his growth and development while, at the
    same 􀀔me he was bound by Dharma (Y_©) to fulfil his share of
    Social responsibility. Society, at the other end, took care of the
    individual when it was much needed, for which the family in the
    capacity as primary group contributed its might. Hindu Seers and
    Shastrakaras synchronised individual’s aim and ambi􀀔on with
    the welfare of the society, which produced the individual good as
    part of the Social good. No one was held above Dharma (Y_©)
    175
    which helped the society to survive and flourish thousands of
    years. Dharma (Y_©) was the principle which sustained the
    society for its smooth conduct and growth.
    The State in ancient 􀀔mes, acted as the prime welfare
    ins􀀔tu􀀔on which took care of welfare and developmental
    aspects of Social life. The King ac􀀔ng as the head of the State,
    was held responsible for a number of welfare as well as
    developmental ac􀀔vi􀀔es. The people could influence the
    decisions of the State and as the ancient texts depict, many
    tyrant Kings were done to death by the people. The King never
    assumed absolute power as he was bound by Dharma and he
    was accountable to the people for his ac􀀔ons. At the same 􀀔me,
    people offered their co-opera􀀔on and assistance for welfare
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es, through various ins􀀔tu􀀔ons like Sabha, Sami􀀔,
    Vidatha Paura-Janapad etc.
    The modern Social Work is based upon the principles of
    Democracy and the dignity of man which were understood
    clearly and given prominence in the ancient Indian society. The
    ancient philosophy has many concepts and prac􀀔ces which can
    enrich the modern Social Work.
    Ancient Ideas relevant to Social Work
    The Hindu Philosophical principle of “Seeing God in all”
    helped the individual in serve others in a be􀀬er frame work and
    this principle urged not to discriminate among all living beings
    and including the human beings. Respect to all and dignity of
    Human beings were envisaged by the principle of “Seeing God in
    all”.
    The ancient texts speak of unity of all souls and consider
    the whole Universe as one ‘Self’. The doctrine of seeing ‘Self’ in
    all living beings, helped the individual to feel the Pain in others
    and to experience pleasure in the happiness of others.
    Social Rela􀀔ons were based on the above two principles
    which tended to make the rela􀀔ons sacred and important.
    176
    Individual’s rela􀀔on with others was governed by his rela􀀔on
    with God which resulted in the respect and dignity shown
    towards others.
    The concept of Danam in ancient texts speak about the
    concept of giving which was not mere charity. The dignity and
    the honour of the receiver was upheld which rendered the
    concept invaluable.
    The concept Danam ought to be undertaken not with
    pity or sympathy towards the receiver but as a duty in which the
    needs of the needy, the 􀀔me and the place of Danam were of
    almost importance.
    Danam connotes wider meaning because Vruksha
    Danam (d¥j XmZ_) plan􀀔ng of trees for others and Deepa Danam
    (XrnXmZ_²) providing street lights for others etc. are also covered
    in Danam.
    Ancient texts allude that the whole community
    some􀀔mes, came forward as one unit to organise Danam (XmZ_)
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es. Danam should be dedicated to God so as to avoid the
    ego of ‘giving’ and always sweet words must be used to keep up
    the dignity of the receiver.
    The Concept Dharma (Y_©)
    The ancient concept of Dharma (Y_©) acted like the main
    principle underlying ancient Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es. Dharma (Y_©)
    was meant for the welfare of all and for maintaining the highest
    standard of living for all in the society.
    Dharma (Y_©) was the chief factor which shaped men’s
    lives and inspired the individual to be engrossed always in the
    welfare of others and the whole society.
    Ancient Social Work originated from the principle of
    Dharma (Y_©) as many welfare ac􀀔vity by the State as well as by
    the individual are termed as their Dharma (Y_©).
    177
    As no one including the King was above Dharma (Y_©), it
    helped in the smooth func􀀔oning of the society and in achieving
    a Social life where the rich and the poor, the weak and the strong
    lived in friendly atmosphere.
    Dharma is meant for the welfare of all because it is
    created by the God for the well-being of the whole Universe and
    through Dharma growth and development of all is guaranteed.
    Dharma protects one who upholds Dharma.
    Dharma concept acted as the main principle underlying
    ancient Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es as King undertook welfare
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es because of Dharma, and the individual contributed
    towards Social Work by digging wells, plan􀀔ng trees, providing
    street lights because of Dharma.
    The Concept Yajna (`k)
    The ancient Yajna is a unique concept in Hindu
    Philosophy and it was not perceived only as a mere sacrifice
    through fire. Yajna (`k) was a collec􀀔ve ac􀀔vity, undertaken by a
    group of people or all the villagers, for the collec􀀔ve good of all.
    Yajna (`k) or group ac􀀔vity for the societal benefit was
    based on mutual co-opera􀀔on and help. Through Yajna (`k),
    sacrifice of selfish things, even the ego was envisaged and the
    term Yajna denoted selfless-collec􀀔ve Social ac􀀔vity.
    Hospitality towards guest itself is Yajna and Yajna
    originated from the du􀀔es (H$_©) which are directed towards the
    welfare of the society and du􀀔es for other’s welfare must be
    undertaken with non-a􀀬achment and devoid of expecta􀀔on
    about the reward.
    Ideological Bases of Ancient Social Work
    The Rina (F$U) Concept
    The concept of Rina (debts) is widely held in Hindu
    Philosophy and the individual conceived as born along with
    various Rinas (debts). Specially, the Rinas (debts) towards
    178
    guests, dependants and fellow human beings carry much
    significance from Social Work point of view. Repayment of these
    debts was compulsory and the methods of repayment gave
    origin to Social Work tradi􀀔ons.
    For repayment of these debts, the individual, is expected
    to serve the guests, the animals, the birds, the creepers etc. The
    methods of repayment were easy to prac􀀔se but were
    significant in their Social implica􀀔ons.
    Pancha Maha Yajna Concept
    Pancha Maha Yajna (n§M _hm `k) or five great sacrifices
    are the second important ideological bases of ancient Social
    Work. The concept of Vaishva Deva (d¡îd Xod) which is a part of
    the Pancha Maha Yajna enthused Social Work in the individual.
    It urged people to provide food daily to the out castes, the
    untouchble, the diseased, the dog, the birds, the fish, the
    crawling creatures etc and through this, ac􀀔vity it was envisaged
    that the individual could reach the highest abode of God.
    These Yajnas were not op􀀔onal to be prac􀀔ced at the will
    and wish but are compulsory for every house-holder as an
    obligatory duty, without which Moksha (_moj) or Salva􀀔on could
    not be achieved.
    The Pancha Maha Yajna and Vaishva Deva concetps
    convey the message that the ancient outlook towards welfare
    was not limited to the human beings only, rather the welfare of
    all living creatures was the concern of ancient society.
    The Bases of Pap (nmn) and Punya (nwÊ`)
    The Pap and Punya concepts acted as bases of ancient
    Social Work as helping others resulted in Punya while causing
    injury to others brought Pap for an individual.
    These concepts were meant for channelising the society
    or ordinary people to undertake Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es for the
    welfare of others but the ancient Social Work was never based
    179
    upon only on these concepts because the Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es
    need to be undertaken without looking at ‘Punya’ or reward in
    return.
    Enough Punya brought heaven but not final Moksha for
    which du􀀔es towards the family and the society, must be
    fulfilled. Thus these concepts helped to undertake Social Work
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es which were to be considered as obligatory du􀀔es
    towards the society.
    Purushartha (nwéfmW©) which are the aims of life for every
    individual acted as the base of ancient Social Work because the
    whole life of the individual was based upon these aims,
    achieving of which required the individual to undertake many
    Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es.
    “For self-salva􀀔on at the same 􀀔me for the welfare of the
    society” (AmË_Zmo _mojmW© OJV² {hVm` M) acted as the another basic
    principle of ancient Social Work.
    Individual and His Posi􀀙on In the Society.
    Every individual was considered to be an important
    member of the society as the society and the family showed
    interest in celebra􀀔ng through various Samskara (g§ñH$ma) or
    sacraments.
    The rela􀀔ons with others was guided by the basic
    ques􀀔on of purpose of existence of the human being who
    considered it as his duty to be at the service of others.
    The rela􀀔on within the family was based on mutual
    respect and on the principle of “Other first rather than the self.”
    The husband wife rela􀀔on was on equal foo􀀔ng as the Hindu
    Shastrakaras urged the husband to undertake even the meanest
    ac􀀔vity taking the wife into confidence.
    The ancient texts urged the family members to live
    unitedly like the spokes of a wheel, a􀀬ached to its axle; to evolve
    unanimous opinion and same a􀁈tude in all life-related
    180
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es; to eat and drink from the same place and render
    assistance among each other; to behave as one unit in the
    ma􀀬er of welfare of the society.
    The Concept Artha (AW©) and Kama (H$m_)
    The concept of Artha (AW©) and Kama (H$m_) are termed
    as the objec􀀔ves of Hindu life, for which efforts must be
    undertaken. Becoming rich and being wealthy is not condemned
    in ancient literature but the accumula􀀔on of wealth must be
    based on Dharma.
    The wealth must be divided into three equal parts, of
    which one must be u􀀔lised for Dharma or Social service; the
    second part for fulfilling the desires; and the remaining third part
    must be saved and mul􀀔plied.
    Enjoyment or sa􀀔sfac􀀔on of desires is not looked down
    upon but it must be undertaken according to ‘Dharma’ or with a
    view to up hold the Social order. The sexual enjoyment a􀀯er
    marriage is considered also as a duty towards the society to
    perpetuate the species.
    The Hindu Family
    The family atmosphere was such that the new born
    member learned his first lessons of service to others, right from
    his early days. The house holder is considered as the supporter
    of life on earth and all living creatures depended on him.
    The house-holder is to eat only a􀀯er food is offered to
    the guests, the parents, the old, the sick, the servants etc. and it
    is the special responsibility of the married woman to look a􀀯er
    the comforts of the old people in the house.
    The family was considered as belonging to the future
    genera􀀔on which was handed down by the past genera􀀔on,
    there by evolving the Trusteeship concept in the family. The
    home was the place where the old, the young the infants lived
    along with animals and birds, for all of whom the wealth the
    family must be u􀀔lised.
    181
    The Samskara (g§ñH$ma)
    The Samskara (g§ñH$ma) concept acted as the milestones
    in the life of the individual, right from his birth to death, through
    which the personality was moulded. These sacraments aimed at
    shaping the individual to become a perfect Social being who
    shouldered his social responsibility willingly and knowingly.
    Ancient literature envisages not to look at procrea􀀔on
    only as a biological phenomenon, which is common to all
    animals and but to consider it in a socio-ethical context and
    procrea􀀔on is regarded as the duty towards the society.
    A new born was considered as an important member of
    the family and the society, right from the womb and through the
    birth of the new born, the welfare of the family and in turn of the
    society was conceived.
    The Upanayanan (CnZ`Z) Samskara is very much
    important as through this, the quality of humility is imbided on
    the young mind. The child was made to understand that he
    depends upon the society for which he must compensate in
    future by undertaking various welfare ac􀀔vi􀀔es.
    Through Upanayan Samskara, the child is expected to
    take vow to take care of the manking and through the prac􀀔se of
    begging and sharing alms, the child was given the prac􀀔cal
    training in serving the society.
    The marriage is not a contract but a sacrament and an
    ins􀀔tu􀀔on through which the newly wedded couple strive for
    the welfare of the society.
    Through the socio-religious ceremonies of Samskaras,
    the individual is taught about his importance in the family and
    the society, and at the same 􀀔me, the individual’s personality is
    shaped to make him more useful to the society.
    The Varna-Ashrama Systems
    The Varna (dU©) system regulated the life of the society
    182
    and was meant to unite all in one common economic, social,
    cultural and spiritual bond. Each Varna was entrusted with
    specific du􀀔es which produced the smooth life of the ideal
    society. For all Varnas nurturing of dependants, causing noinjury
    to any creature, sharing of wealth etc. are envisaged as
    common rules. The Varna system survived for long without
    clash, allowing social mobility through inter Varna marriages,
    helping every other members within and outside Varna.
    The Ashrama system four fold and the du􀀔es a􀀬ached to
    each were such that the concern of the society was held high. In
    Brahmacharya Ashrama (~«åh`© Aml_), the child was imparted
    with the knowledge of lores of the society and was trained to
    lead life which is useful to the society.
    The Grihastha Ashrama (J¥hñW Aml_) is given the highest
    importance because of its contribu􀀔on towards the welfare of
    the society. The Grihastha or the house holder is expected to
    take care of the old, the sick, the animals the birds, the guests,
    the travellers etc. and also to undertake developmental ac􀀔vi􀀔es
    like plan􀀔ng trees, providing street lights etc.
    Individidual’s Contribu􀀙on Towards Social Work
    Apart from the State’s efforts, individuals are held
    responsible for the welfare of the society according to the
    ancient literature. Every individual should contribute his might
    towards the be􀀬erment of Social life.
    Concern towards the old, the servants etc.
    The individual must take care of the old, the servants, the
    dependants and should take food only a􀀯er feeding them. Manu
    and other Smru􀀔 writers call upon the husband and wife to take
    food only a􀀯er offering it to the guests, the servants, the old in
    the family etc.
    No Worker or servant should be terminated from his
    service without any good reason and the terminated servant
    183
    must be duely compensated inview of termina􀀔on. Proper pay
    must be paid for the Work of the servants.
    A􀀙thi-Pujanam (A{V{W nwOZ§)
    A􀀔thi (A{V{W) is the guest who comes to the house
    without prior invita􀀔on or whose date ({V{W) is not fixed. He has
    to be treated as God and his comforts must be the concern of
    every house holder.
    A􀀔thi-Pujanam (A{V{W nwOZ) or hospitality towards
    guests was one of the important ancient Social Work prac􀀔ces
    and hence is equated with Yajna (`k) which is to be performed
    daily.
    Whatever is offered to the guest is like offering made into
    Yajna (`k) and as per Panch Dakshina Yajna (n§M XjrUm `k), the
    guest must be offered water to clean his feet, seat, food, a lamp
    or a light and res􀀔ng place.
    The guest must be received with pleasant guestures;
    sweet and kind words to be spoken to him; the complete
    a􀀬en􀀔on must be paid for his comforts, and he must be
    accompanied 􀀔ll the boundary of the village or 􀀔ll he bids good
    by to show respect and regard to him when he leaves the house.
    Cooking food for self is decried and always food must be
    shared with others. This points out to the concern of mankind
    towards others in ancient literature.
    Care of Old, Sick, Orphan, Widow etc.
    The individual must take care of the old, the sick, the
    orphan, the widow etc and must share his wealth with them with
    due sympathy. In other words, these helpless and hapless
    persons should be given proper a􀀬en􀀔on and care.
    A person who finds livelihood for these people is held in
    esteem. It implies that a permanent rehabilita􀀔on by way of
    finding suitable livelihood for these people is envisaged in the
    ancient literature. It is the special duty of the house-hold woman
    184
    to take care of the old and the sick, the blind, the weak, the
    servants etc in the family.
    No one should deceive the woman who is orphan, old,
    young, minor, frightened or ‘Sanyasin’.
    Welfare of the Children of Wrong Doers
    Atharava Veda calls upon the people to accept the children
    of wrong doers and to help them lead a be􀀬er life in future.
    Contribu􀀙on towards developmental Works
    Individual is expected to build public parks, public
    houses, gardens, inns, wells etc for the benefit of others.
    Digging of wells and ponds, preparing gardens or
    plan􀀔ng of trees on road side, all are equated to be which like
    performing Yajna (`k) and speaking of truth.
    Wells and ponds of various sizes must be built to contain
    enough water 􀀔ll the next monsoon arrives and these must be
    constructed on the boarder of the villages where they are most
    required. Temples must also be built, which are meant for the
    travellers to take rest.
    Plan􀀙ng of Trees
    Shady trees must be planted and they are to be taken
    care of like children. They must be properly maintained so as to
    be useful to all.
    As per Dharma (Y_©), digging of ponds and plan􀀔ng of
    shady trees is essen􀀔al for every individual.
    Trees having medicinal value must be planted and
    maintained and one who destroys them deserve punishment
    according to the value of the tree destroyed.
    Provision of Street Lights
    Mahabharat urges the people to donate light which
    means that all must provide street lights for the benefit of night
    travellers. The street lights or lamps must be kindled every
    evening by the house-holder.
    185
    The places where lights are to be provided are very much
    important. Lights should be provided at the foot of the hills, near
    rivulets, near bushes at temples, at cross-roads, at caltle sheds
    and at Brahmins houses where probably the evening educa􀀔on
    classes are held.
    Care of Animals and Birds
    All living creatures must be offered food and no one
    should cause injury to them.
    The sick caltle must be taken to the veternary doctors
    from where they will be cured.
    Bhuta Bali (^yV ~br) is one of the five great sacrifices to be
    performed daily by all house-holders. In this Bhuta Bali, food
    must be offered to cow, dogs, crawling creatures, birds, fish etc.
    which points to the concern of ancient people to whole
    Universe.
    Dona􀀙ng Money, Land, Houses etc.
    On the request of the poor, the rich used to donate
    house, land, farm, money and other ar􀀔cles.
    Wealth is to be accumulated by hundred hands but
    wealth should be distributed by thousand hands which implies
    the generosity to be shown in dona􀀔ng.
    The wealth of the rich who helps the poor for the
    treatment of old parents, to take care of children and other
    dependants, etc. never get diminished which means that such
    dona􀀔ons are encouraged for the welfare of the poor.
    Concern about handicapped
    One who snatches everything from the blind, the
    handicapped and the deaf is termed as the killer of God.
    Manu, the law giver, ordains not to look down upon or
    make fun of the handicapped, the mentally retarded, nonbeau
    􀀔ful to look at, the old, the poor, the down-trodden owing
    to their disabili􀀔es.
    186
    Public Health & Hyginene
    As a measure to maintain healthy condi􀀔on, Manu
    forbids ea􀀔ng food with scant regard to clothes, bathing without
    clothes, and Urina􀀔ng at roads, public places, stacks of ash etc.
    One who eases out on roads deserved punishment and
    the roads ought to be cleaned immediately but a sick person, the
    old, a pregnant lady need not be punished for such offence.
    State in Ancient India
    In ancient India, the State was headed by a King and the
    ins􀀔tu􀀔on of King merged with that of State. Through King, the
    State was expected to carry on various welfare ac􀀔vi􀀔es for the
    subjects who could hold great influence on the decision’s of the
    State, through the medium of ‘Popular Assemblies’, namely
    Sabha (g^m), Sami􀀔 (g{_Vr), Vidhata ({dYV), Paura-Janapada
    (nm¡a-OZnX) etc.
    In Hindu Polity the word Raj (amO) in Sanskrit is associated
    with Ranj (a§O) meaning to please as the king is held to be the
    person who pleases or strives to keep the subjects happy and
    contented. The prime duty of the king was Prajanuranjana
    (àOmZwa§OZ) meaning to please the subjects by employing
    wholesome policies and programmes conducive to public
    welfare.
    Kau􀀔lya in his Artha Shastra men􀀔ons that the pleasure
    (happiness) of the subjects is the pleasure (happiness) of the
    king and the welfare of the subject is more important than the
    king’s personal interest.
    King was expected to act like the servant of the people
    1/6th share (tax) being his wages, The two great incarna􀀔ons of
    God, namely Shriram and Shrikrishna admit that they are the
    sevants of the people who can give orders to them.
    Tax in Ancient India
    Ancient texts, call upon the king to accept only 1/6th
    187
    share of wealth as tax which should be collected without
    applying any coresion and which should be u􀀔lised for the
    welfare of the subjects.
    Tax increase should never be steep and sudden but like a
    honeybee collec􀀔ng honey bit by bit. The subjects must be kept
    comfortable and happy in determining the Taxa􀀔on Policy of the
    State.
    Convincing the people and taking them into confidence
    must be done by the king by undertaking the tour of the whole
    country and reques􀀔ng them to pay more tax, before
    implimen􀀔ng increase in tax.
    Increased tax like during calami􀀔es confron􀀔ng the
    Na􀀔on, must be returned to the subjects as soon as such
    condi􀀔ons cease to exist. And even doing so, the welfare out look
    towards the subjects should never be done away with.
    Tax exemp􀀔on is envisaged for less privileged class like
    the blind, the deaf, the handicapped, the senior ci􀀔zens etc. Toll
    should not be yeilded for crossing a ferry from an expectant
    mother, the student, the Sanyasin etc.
    Poor people like carpenter, smith, loader etc who cannot
    pay tax by currency or in kind, should be allowed to work for one
    day in a month in lieu of the tax and during there days, they must
    be fed freely.
    Tax must be based on the paying capacity of the
    individual and welfare outlook ought to be held high in taxing the
    commodi􀀔es.
    King Vis-a-Vis the Subjects
    The king is expected to deal with the subjects like a
    pregnant woman who sacrifices her own interests for the sake of
    the child in the womb. The king should live for his subjects and
    not for himself like a father to the children who could move
    freely without any fear under the fear protec􀀔on of the father.
    188
    The king must take oath to uphold the welfare of the
    people and to strive for the development of the Na􀀔on before
    assuming the kingship.
    People’s Hold Over King
    Many instances in which the elec􀀔on of the king, were
    men􀀔oned are pointers to the fact that such elected kings could
    never forget the welfare of the subjects because he needed their
    support to get elected.
    The subjects are termed as ‘King makers’ and the
    greatest hope expressed was that the Popular Assemblies like
    Sabha and Sami􀀔 were always to be with the king who was
    regarded as clearly depending on the people.
    Sabha, Sami􀀔, the army, the treasury etc obey the king
    who follow the subjects belonging to both towns and villages
    which implies that the welfare of the people should be the prime
    concern of the king.
    The Atharva Veda men􀀔ons a verse which high lights, the
    elec􀀔on manifesto of a candidate aspiring to become king. The
    manifesto promises, good educa􀀔on, development and
    progress etc. to the people. This points towards the various
    schemes proposed by an aspirant king who used to impliment
    them later on.
    Welfare Ac􀀙vi􀀙es By The State
    Construc􀀙on of roads, Townships, Providing street lights etc.
    The Mahabharat calls upon the king to construct high
    ways and roads. Artha Shastra also men􀀔ons the construc􀀔on of
    roads and protec􀀔on to the travellers and traders as the duty of
    the king.
    The Atharva Veda refers to three kinds of roads, what is
    fit for chariots, what is fit for carts, and what is fit for pedestrians.
    The epic Ramayana, alludes construc􀀔on of roads and street
    lights in Ayodhya, the capital of the Kosala Kingdom as well as in
    189
    Lanka, Kingdom of the demon king Ravana.
    The roads were maintained by daily sprinkiling of water
    to put down the dust and street lights were provided which
    made the ci􀀔es bright and beau􀀔ful as men􀀔oned in Ramayana.
    The Mahabharat describes it as the duty of the king to
    build non-conjested townships which will have beau􀀔ful roads,
    market places, public places for amusement and shelter for the
    travellers.
    Digging of Wells, Ponds, Lakes etc.
    The Mahabharat proclaims that the king must construct
    wells, ponds, and lakes for different purposes including irriga􀀔on
    of agricultural land.
    The Ramayana men􀀔ons about lots of wells and ponds of
    various sizes throughout the kingdom of Shri Ramchandra.
    Rigveda men􀀔ons about ar􀀔ficial water courses used for
    irriga􀀔on as well as for supplying drinking water.
    Care of the Sick and the Old, the Orphan etc.
    The king must take care of the sick and the old by
    providing them with food, clothes and medicines. The king is
    described as the protector of the old and as the person who
    removes tears from the eyes of the sick and the old.
    The king must maintain the people who are without
    livelihood, the orphans etc. The permanent or complete
    rehabilita􀀔on of the hapless people is envisaged by providing
    them with permanent livelihood.
    Care of the Handicapped and the people in despair
    King like a father, must take care of all the handicapped
    mentally as well as physically, including the blind, the deaf, the
    persons with distorted body etc.
    The persons without livelihood must be maintained by
    the king who must also act like the saviour of the people in
    despair by providing security to them.
    190
    The king must provide food and clothes and also
    encourage other rich people to do the same for the old, the sick,
    the orphan, the homeless etc.
    An ideal kingdom is that one where there are no
    diseases, famine, or problems due to old age.
    Kau􀀔lya notes that the welfare of the des􀀔tute and the
    sick is the responsibility of the State which offered doles to the
    orphans, the aged, the infirm and also to poor pregnant women
    for their livelihood. The king like a father must look a􀀯er the
    persons with distorted body and persons without livelihood.
    Care of Educated Unemployed
    The king must maintain and look a􀀯er the comforts of
    those who are educated but are frightened and depressed
    because of unemployment.
    Maintenance of Doctors
    King must maintain doctors who are specialised in the
    treatment of poison, cuts and injury, infec􀀔ous diseases etc and
    king should preserve medicines to be used for the health of all
    subjects.
    Welfare of Foreign Ci􀀙zens
    The life of the king is condemned who could provide
    livelihood to the subjects as well as foreigners who came to the
    Country in search of it.
    Welfare of Workers
    Welfare of the Workers and the servants of the State, is
    the responsibility of the king who should strive to relieve them
    from fear of want.
    King should supply or provide (under loan facility), the
    workers with instruments and other resources for their trade to
    con􀀔nue for four months of the rainy season.
    The State should supply co􀀬on to the women whose
    guardians (workers) are on tour and must pay for them for the
    191
    yarn prepared by these women.
    Care of Prisoners
    It is king’s responsibility to look a􀀯er the health of the
    prisoners who must be provided with free medical treatment
    and even houses to live in along with the family if the prisoner is
    very much ill.
    Social Fes􀀙vals
    King is held responsible to organise Social Fes􀀔vals
    frequently both in towns and big villages for the amusement of
    the subjects and some􀀔mes these Fes􀀔vals carried Social
    themes through various entertainment ac􀀔vi􀀔es.
    It is the reqponsibility of the king to maintain the
    dancers, the magicians, the atheletes, the actors etc.
    Patronage of Educa􀀙on
    Patronage of educa􀀔on is a prime ac􀀔vity of Welfare State
    and enough evidences are available about this, in ancient texts.
    The king should organise educa􀀔on in such a manner that the
    women as well as the children get be􀀬er vision and a􀁈tude of life.
    In Ramayana, it is described that there was not a single person who
    is slenderly read and even the demons (amjg) were educated.
    King supplied clothes, utensils food etc to the Ashram
    (Aml_) where educa􀀔on was imparted free of cost. The
    Ashramas were residen􀀔al schools and besides these, academic
    like Parishad (n[afX) and centres of wandering scholars also
    existed which were maintained by the State.
    Educated people were respected by all including the king
    as they were considered as non-diminishing wealth of the
    Na􀀔on.
    Role of other Ins􀀙tu􀀙ons
    Apart from the State, various ins􀀔tu􀀔ons like Sabha
    (g^m), Sami􀀔 (g{_Vr), Vidhata ({dYV), Paura Janapad (nm¡a OZnX),
    Vara (dma), Gana (JU), Shreni (loUr) etc. played important role in
    192
    organising welfare programmes for the society.
    The people in general and their representa􀀔ves in these
    popular assemblies, in par􀀔cular, par􀀔cipated in the welfare
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es.
    Bunch of thoughts on Ancient concepts:
    Today, knowingly or unknowingly the Social Work
    Educa􀀔on in India is more influenced by the Western thoughts
    and principles rather than the values and socio-cultural aspects
    of Indian society. We have to recognize and accept this reality in
    order to raise the standard of Social Work in India to higher
    levels. Lack of indigenous knowledge for teaching-learning (and
    for training)is considered to be a major handicap in this regard. A
    sincere and 􀀔reless a􀀬empt to develop the knowledge base is
    the need of the hour. There is a great need to strike a balance
    between Western knowledge base of Social Work and the
    knowledge about Indian culture and tradi􀀔ons. This will have a
    tremendous impact on success of Social Work prac􀀔ce in India.
    In this connec􀀔on I wish to deliberate on the following
    concepts as a bunch of thoughts which can be developed further
    and progressive enfoldment of its content is possible.
    Social Work and Spirituality
    Spirituality does not mean religion– the way religion is
    defined and understood in common parlance. Spirituality is the
    processes of knowing the inner world or self and of making a
    good connect with the world outside. Dharma is a term which is
    nearest to the term spirituality and in fact Dharma is much
    beyond spirituality
    Spiritual leaders all over the world had contributed
    immensely towards the well-being of not only the mankind but
    also all living beings. There exists even in the present 􀀔mes, lot of
    examples of spiritual leaders/ Guruswho work towards
    be􀀬erment of society in all respects and they are far more be􀀬er
    than the trained Social Workers. Can we not learn from them?
    193
    Can we not learn some basics or fundamentals enshrined in
    Spirituality? Definitely spirituality can help Social Workers
    understand the situa􀀔on in a broader perspec􀀔ve. For this,
    spirituality must become part of Social Work syllabus in the
    Indian context.
    To discuss as an example, medita􀀔on technique will help
    the Social Worker for his/her inner growth. This being a skill, it
    can be imparted easily and students of Social Worker will gain
    exponen􀀔ally as he/she will be able to handlestressful situa􀀔on
    with calm and magnanimity. What type of medita􀀔on? Or which
    medita􀀔on can be useful? These ques􀀔ons can be discussed and
    the most suitable one that meets need can be accepted for
    including it in the syllabus. For example, medita􀀔on techniques
    prac􀀔ced by Art of Living members (of Sri Sri Ravi Sankar) or
    prac􀀔ced by followers of Sadguru Jaggi Vasudev of Tamil Nadu
    can be worked out as lots of youngsters including professionals
    appreciate these techniques. One more important area for
    Social Work Research will be to study the benefits of medita􀀔on
    on individuals as now a days whole world is concerned with
    Happiness index of the popula􀀔on.
    The other few things that may follow in line will be Yoga-
    Asana-Pranayam etc which should never be viewed from
    religious angle only. Health benefits arising from these simple
    but effec􀀔ve techniques will go a long way in helping poor clients
    in India to raise their standard of living. It is all about posi􀀔ve
    health like hygiene or washing your hands before meals and in
    their absence the poor spends huge money as medical bill. In
    certain parts of India, especially Central India, a concept called
    ‘Garbha Sanskar’ is prac􀀔ced for the past few years successfully.
    More and more medical doctors are coming forward to
    recommend pregnant ladies to adopt to this system for healthy
    delivery. This was evolved and developed by few spiritually
    inclined ladies and passed on to next genera􀀔on. This technique
    194
    can be propagated along with diet and nutri􀀔on programme for
    pregnant ladies, especially in rural areas. Students of Social
    Work with Medical and Maternal health elec􀀔ve ought to be
    provided with knowledge and imparted training in order to carry
    the benefits to rural India.
    Doctrine of Dignity
    Doctrine of human dignity is the most fundamental
    principle on which the Social Work knowledge (and its prac􀀔ce)
    has been built upon. Present day Social Work literature deals
    with this doctrine elaborately and unknowingly it is passed on to
    our students terming it as a western concept as if nothing like
    this existed in our Indian society in earlier days. This is incorrect.
    Ancient literature in India went beyond human dignity as it
    propagated not only human dignity but also dignity of all living
    beings.
    The Bhagawat Gita contains a Sloka which goes like this
    Vidyavinayasampanne Brahmane Gavi Has􀀓ni
    Shuni Chaiva Shvapake cha Panditah Samadarshinah [Ch.5]Meaning: A learned man looks at a Brahmin, cow, elephant, dog
    and an outcaste with equal respect. He never discriminates
    among them.
    Another Sloka says
    Atmoupamyena sarvatra samam pashya􀀓 yo Arjuna
    Sukham vaa yadi vaa dukkham saa yogi paramo matah [Ch.6]Meaning: The Yogi who sees all living beings pleasure or pain
    alike on the analogy of his own self, is deemed to be the Supreme
    Yogi
    Further the Gita calls upon to see God in all beings:-
    Yomaam pashya􀀓 sarvatra sarvam cha mayi pashya􀀓 [Ch.6]One who beholds me (God) everywhere and beholds
    everything in me (God)…this kind of percep􀀔on of seeing God in
    everything helps the individual to respect the dignity of all
    195
    beings. It is not just the dignity of human beings but the dignity
    of all animate and inanimate things too.
    An argument may come up for discussion at this
    juncture. Why are we discussing this doctrine of dignity of all
    beings?Social Work deals with human beings only and not with
    other living beings. The purpose of discussion is for developing a
    be􀀬er perspec􀀔ve and a􀁈tude in Social Worker. The a􀁈tude of
    seeing God in all things and thereby showing respect to all
    definitely will help Social Workers to have a be􀀬er outlook
    towards human suffering.
    Ancient Indian literature contains many more such
    teachings and principles which can shape the mind set up of
    Social Workers.
    Principle of Self Determina􀀙on
    Principle of Self Determina􀀔on is one of the most
    important and fundamental principles of Social Work. The client
    himself/herself determines his course of ac􀀔on to face the issue
    or problem and the Social Worker is not expected to impose his
    decision on the client. Let us examine what ancient Indian
    literature has to offer in this regard.
    There will be no exaggera􀀔on if we say that Bhagavat Gita
    is a good example of social case work record. To put it in brief,
    Arjuna gets confused and depressed on seeing his own rela􀀔ves
    on other side of ba􀀬le field as enemies. He refuses to fight and
    Krishna has to make lot of efforts to help Arjuna to come out of
    his depression and confusion. Bhagavat Gita which literally
    means Divine song is like a dialogue between a Social Worker
    and Client.
    At the end, Krishna tells Arjuna “this is the essence of all
    knowledge which is very difficult to comprehend but please
    analyze and examine this cri􀀔cally and decide for yourself what
    should be your course of ac􀀔on” (Chapter 18). This is a good
    example of principle of self-determina􀀔on recorded long-long
    196
    ago. Krishna never concluded his dialogue by imposing his
    decision on Arjuna.
    However we have to go further and discuss about this
    principle especially in the Indian context. There is no doubt that
    self-determina􀀔on principle should ever be compromised. Being
    Social Workers we must strive to uphold this principle. And that
    is what Krishna had also done. Every profession adheres to this
    principle. But in Indian situa􀀔on, to what extent we can prac􀀔ce
    this principle in le􀀬er and spirit. We encourage and allow the
    Client for self-determina􀀔on. For whatever reason, be it less
    literacy or socio-cultural upbringing (of members in the family
    and the society), very less percentage of clients may be able to
    decide for themselves. For example in Medical Profession, the
    doctors leave it to the client to opt for par􀀔cular line of
    treatment.However most of the clients ul􀀔mately (including
    those with good educa􀀔on) revert back to the doctor and
    request him/her to decide in the best interest of the client. At the
    most, few pa􀀔ents may choose to go for a second opinion but
    s􀀔ll come back with the same request to he doctor to take a
    decision on their behalf.
    Once again it is reiterated that we are not advoca􀀔ng to
    do away with this principle of self-determina􀀔on. It is highly
    essen􀀔al for any profession including Social Work.
    Coming back to the Gita, it is recorded that Arjuna was
    also experiencing the same situa􀀔on. Even a􀀯er ge􀁈ng Divine
    advice he never chose to decide himself. But there is a vast
    difference between a normal client and Arjuna. His mind set
    must be understood in proper perspec􀀔ve. Arjuna was clear in
    his mind. He says “Krishna, now I don’t have any doubts, I am
    clear in my mind. Please tell me what to do and I will do it without
    any hesita􀀔on” (Bh. Gita Ch. 18)
    This shows the faith of Arjuna on Krishna and he knows
    from the bo􀀬om of his heart that decision of Krishna will be the
    197
    best op􀀔on to execute.
    Now the point is, in Indian situa􀀔on a client shows his full
    faith in the Social Worker and believes that Social Worker can do
    no wrong to him/her. Thus the client tells the Social Worker to
    make decision on his/her (Client’s) behalf. This faith must be
    upheld forever and in this regard the responsibility of the Social
    Worker increases many fold. Social worker’s ac􀀔ons or words
    should never be such that the faith in profession gets damaged.
    Otherwise it will lead to a situa􀀔on where professionals decide
    on behalf of the client to mint money.
    During classroom discussion on the principle of selfdetermina
    􀀔on, Social Work educators can deliberate on the
    above aspect also, so that the future Social Workers are
    benefi􀀬ed.
    A􀁄ributes or Quali􀀙es of a successful Social Worker
    The debate on the issue of indigenous Social Work has
    been going on for a long 􀀔me. The basic point in this regard is to
    understand the rela􀀔on between socio-cultural background of
    the people of a par􀀔cular country or region and applicability of
    universally accepted principles of Social Work in to prac􀀔ce.
    As a part of this larger issue, another salient ques􀀔on
    that comes up for discussion is ‘can a Social Work prac􀀔􀀔oner
    who is successful in a country like USA be equally successful in
    prac􀀔cing Social Work in India?’ A clear cut answer to this
    ques􀀔on in terms of Yes or No will never be possible.
    Let us elaborate the above point; in a country like USA
    with its socio-cultural background, the clients or the society at
    large can easily understand the difference between the private
    life and the professional life of a Social Worker or medical doctor.
    And they may not mind what he or she does in his/her personal
    life and they will value, only the professional approach and
    efficiency. But the same will not be true in India as clients may
    not dis􀀔nguish between private and professional life. In other
    198
    words a successful prac􀀔􀀔oner in USA will never be successful as
    clients or the people here may not go by his professionalism
    alone , rather may not trust him due to what happens in his
    private life. They will expect him to be an ideal person in all
    respect. As a corollary, we can say skills acquired by the Social
    Worker alone may not be of much use for a successful prac􀀔ce.
    Clients here in India will be more interested in the personal
    a􀀬ributes or quali􀀔es of a Social Worker rather than his/her
    skills.
    Hence it is impera􀀔ve to discuss about the a􀀬ributes and
    quali􀀔es of a Social Worker from the point of view of clients in
    India. In this connec􀀔on Bhagavat Gita comes in handy. Gita in its
    Chapter 12 describes in detail a lot of a􀀬ributes or quali􀀔es of a
    devotee which will be equally good for a Social Worker in India.
    Gita says
    1) He/she (a devotee) must not get bored or annoyed by the
    people around him and the people should not be annoyed by his
    presence. He/she must be devoid of ela􀀔on, envy, fear or
    agita􀀔on. Definitely these quali􀀔es are a must for Social Worker
    in India
    2) He/she remains neutral or equal or same towards friend and
    foe as also in honour and dishonor; pleasure and pain. Don’t we
    agree that these are quali􀀔es to be imbibed by Social Workers?
    3) He/she treats alike contempt and praise, does not hate or
    grieve or desire. He never craves, remains unworried or fearless.
    Social Workers even though they are human beings with all
    drawbacks, must strive to develop these quali􀀔es.
    4) He/she hates no beings, is friendly and compassionate, or is
    far away from sense of possession and of egoism; he/she
    remains equally magnanimous in pleasure and pain. Surely
    Social Workers must think over these quali􀀔es which definitely
    will help them in the long run.
    To evolve indigenous Social Work or to move towards
    199
    Indian Social Work, we must have some mechanisms or systems
    to ponder over the essen􀀔al quali􀀔es of a Social Worker. Social
    Work educators can do tremendous work in this regard to make
    prac􀀔ce of Social Work successful in India.
    Indian Spiritualism and Social Work
    Spirituality and Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es in India are interwoven
    in the sense that we can find lot of ac􀀔vi􀀔es which have
    profound social impact even though the ac􀀔vi􀀔es are performed
    as part of religious or cultural programmes. In other words the
    ancient scriptures call upon the people to perform social
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es as part of religious life. If we study these ac􀀔vi􀀔es in
    depth, we will be able to understand social benefits produced.
    Few examples of them are taken up here for discussion.
    As per the Indian philosophy there are 27 Nakshatras or
    stars and every individual born here, gets a star with base to the
    date and 􀀔me of his/her birth. Every Nakshatra is iden􀀔fied with
    an animal and a tree. Religious texts call upon the individuals to
    not harm these animals and trees (related to their stars) rather
    they must worship them. This is nothing but environmental
    concern or protec􀀔on mechanism inter-woven with the religion.
    Moreover there is a fes􀀔val called “Vata –Savitri Pujan”. On this
    day the Vata Vriksha or Banyan tree is to be worshipped
    especially by women folk. It is an example of Environment
    Protec􀀔on Day celebrated under the banner of religion.
    Another such example is the religious ac􀀔vity called
    “Kanyaka Pujan” or worshipping girls especially during Devi
    Navaratra fes􀀔val. Nine girls of different ages are worshipped for
    nine days. It is as good as the campaign for save the girl child of
    modern 􀀔mes undertaken for nine days. Unfortunately we do
    not observe such fes􀀔vals in true sense of the term. One more
    example is that of the fes􀀔val of Nag Panchami on which day
    serpents and snakes are worshipped as the Indian philosophy
    upholds the principle of seeing God in everything. It also conveys
    200
    the importance a􀀬ached to the modern concept of Bio-diversity.
    If we worship the most poisonous creature such as snakes in the
    true sense of the term, then how can such society kill them or
    destroy nature?
    One more aspect in this regard that requires a􀀬en􀀔on is
    about the socially relevant ac􀀔vi􀀔es undertaken by the spiritual
    or religious leaders in India from the past to the present 􀀔mes.
    Let us not forget that these are religious leaders, doing
    tremendous ac􀀔vi􀀔es related to Social Work. One good example
    from the past can be that of Swami Vivekananda. A cursory
    glance on the life and work of Vivekananda will impress us that
    he has done superior work than any well-known-trained Social
    Worker. Same is the case with Basaveswara Swami from
    Karnataka region. In the present day scenario, lots of
    religious/spiritual leaders are more inclined towards social
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es and con􀀔nuously mo􀀔vate their followers to help the
    needy people in our society. It will be injus􀀔ce to leave out the
    names of religious leaders but due to the constraint of space, let
    us name a few only. Art of living, the organiza􀀔on headed by
    spiritual Guru Sri Sri Ravi Shankar is doing exemplary work on the
    issue of farmers’ suicide especially in Yavatmal District of
    Maharashtra which has seen the highest number of farmers’
    suicide. Another example is that of Mata Amritanandmayi or
    Sadguru Jaggi Vasudev. Social Work students can learn lot of
    things from the projects run by such leaders.
    The underlying principle that comes up prominently on
    analyzing the work by religious leaders is very interes􀀔ng. When
    one such religious Guru was asked why he is undertaking such
    social ac􀀔vi􀀔es when he being a religious person is expected to
    preach about religion and seek salva􀀔on or Moksha. He rightly
    said it is for self-salva􀀔on and at the same 􀀔me welfare of the
    society [Atmano Mokshartham Jagat Hitaya cha]These are the bunch of thoughts which may seem not to
    201
    be cohesive; these are like bunch of flowers with different
    colours and fragrance but each flower is beau􀀔ful and fragrant.
    Developing knowledge base for Indianisa􀀔on of Social Work is
    the need of the hour and these bunches of thoughts will go a
    long way in accomplishing this noble goal. Exploring and
    explaining the ancient concepts and therea􀀯er applying them
    appropriately in Prac􀀔ce should be our goal through which we
    can enrich knowledge base of Social Work universally.
    Salient Features
    1) Ancient Indian literature contains ideological concepts
    relevant to Social Work.
    The ancient Indian literature speaks of two principles of
    “Seeing God in All” and “Seeing self in All” which helps the
    individual to uphold the dignity of the other and to feel the pains
    of the other which render him to serve others with dignity. The
    concept Danam (XmZ_) is very relevant to Social work, through
    which, the needy is helped with dignity and honour and before
    his asking for help, with respect to the parameters of 􀀔me and
    place. The concept of Dharma is the underlying principle for
    ancient social work prac􀀔ces. It is the Dharma or obbigatory duty
    of every individual as well as the king to be engrossed always, in
    the welfare of the society. Another concept Yajna (`k) is a social
    ac􀀔vity, collec􀀔vely undertaken by all for the collec􀀔ve good of
    all, based on mutual help and co-opera􀀔on.
    2) The ancient ideology and prac􀀙ce of Social work was largely
    a product of man’s concern towards Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap
    (nmn)
    The above statement stands par􀀔ally negated in the
    sense that to some extent these two concepts channelized the
    common man to undertake social work ac􀀔vi􀀔es but the ancient
    texts enshrined the individual to rise above Punya (nwÊ`) and Pap
    (nmn) in the prac􀀔ce of Social Work. (Supra Page 57-60). Further,
    202
    the ancient ideology of Social Work is based upon other
    concepts also like Dharma (Y_©) Runa (F$U) Panch Maha Yajna
    (n§M _hm`k), Vaishva dev and Bhuta Bali (d¡îd Xod-_yV~br) etc. The
    sense of Social Responsibility of the individual, integra􀀔on of
    individual’s aim of life and obbigatory du􀀔es with service unto
    others; the socialisa􀀔on process in the family etc are responsible
    for the prac􀀔ce of Social Work. Hence ‘Punya’ and ‘Pap’ were not
    the only two concepts on which the ancient Social Work
    prac􀀔ces originated.
    3) The concept of Welfare State in a contemporary form was in
    existence and the ancient State had many schemes for the
    welfare of the Society.
    The prime concern of the State was the happiness of the
    subject. The State through the ins􀀔tu􀀔on of the king was held
    responsible for various welfare ac􀀔vi􀀔es including partronage of
    educa􀀔on. (Papers 126) The taxa􀀔on policy was not coersive but
    the welfare out look was maintained in its implimenta􀀔on and
    u􀀔lisa􀀔on of the State revenue. The people could expert
    influence on the decisions of the State through various popular
    assemblies. The elec􀀔on manifes to points to the existence of
    various schemes for the welfare of the people. various welfare
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es of the State proves that the ancient State evolved
    s c h e m e s fo r e d u ca􀀔 o n a l , h e a l t h , re c re a􀀔 o n a l a n d
    developmental aspects of the social life.
    4) The ancient literature concerning welfare, clearly outlined
    an individual’s role and his responsibility in rela􀀙on to the
    society.
    The ancient texts clearly envisaged the role of individual
    in the social life and his social responsibility. The aims of the
    individual and the aims of the society were integrated
    beau􀀔fully to produce the dependency of individual on the
    society and Vice Versa. Through the concept Dharma (Y_©),
    203
    Danam (XmZ_), Yajna (`k) individuals role in social welfare
    becomes more clear and concrete. (pages 36-51) The Varna
    Ashrama (dU©-Aml_) system clearly outlined an individual’s role
    and his responsibility in rela􀀔on to the society.
    5) The prac􀀙se of Social Work in ancient India was highly
    developed and conducive to the welfare of old people, infants,
    physically handicapped, des􀀙tutes etc.
    The ancient literature men􀀔ons not only the theore􀀔cal
    or ideal aspect of social work but also men􀀔ons about the
    natural and easy ways and means of prac􀀔cing the social work
    through the concepts of A􀀙thipujanam (A{V{WnwOZ), the Rinas
    (F$U), Pancha Maha yajna (n§M _hm`k), Vaishva Deva (d¡îd Xod)
    etc. The individual is held responsible to take care of the old
    people, infants (through Sanskaral physically handicapped,
    des􀀔tutes etc by way of providing food and shelter to them. The
    House-holder took food only a􀀯er feeding these people. The old
    people were respected and women were par􀀔cularly held
    responsible for their comfort.
    6) Religious and Semi-religious ins􀀙tu􀀙ons were involved in
    social work ac􀀙vi􀀙es.
    Religious and Semireligious ins􀀔tu􀀔ons in the sense of
    the terms, temples or Mu􀀬s were not involved as they are not
    men􀀔oned in the ancient texts as undertaking Social Work
    ac􀀔vi􀀔es. The Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es were mainly undertaken by
    the State and the individual like those who are in Grihastha
    Ashrama (J¥hñW Aml_) or house-holders.
    The Sanskrit term Dharma (Y_©) is a more poten􀀔al and
    comprehensive in its meaning and can not be equated with the
    English term Religion. But Dharma (Y_©) and Dharmic
    Ins􀀔tu􀀔ons like Varna-Ashrama, the Purushrtha, the Yajna etc
    were back-bone of ancient social work-prac􀀔se.
    204
    Sugges􀀙ons
    1) For the purpose of ‘Indianising Social Work’ a further in
    depth study will be helpful in the direc􀀔on of the present study.
    2) The State as well as individuals can draw inspira􀀔on and
    insight for undertaking Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es and for which
    wider efforts need to be evolved.
    3) The ancient concepts like ‘Yajna’ and ‘Danam’ and their
    prac􀀔ces are s􀀔ll relevant and terming the present day similar
    Social Work ac􀀔vi􀀔es as Yajna may be more result producing.
    4) Some concepts like Samadarshi, Sthitaprajna etc. can enrich
    the modern Social Work theory.
    5) Ancient texts men􀀔on, about quali􀀔es required for an ideal
    social worker and these can be followed by the present day
    Social Work prac􀀔􀀔oners.
      
    205
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    212
    ANNEXURE 1
    Brāhmana-ĀranyakaGrantha
    Brāhmana Grantha
    ~«m÷U J«§W
    Aitereya
    Kausitaki
    Śatapatha
    Tai􀀬eriya
    Madhyavar􀀔
    Tāndya
    Jaiminiya
    Gopatha
    Āranyaka Grantha
    AmaÊ`H$ J«§W
    Aitereya
    Kausitaki
    Tai􀀬eriya
    Katha
    Maitrāyāniya
    Talva-kara
    ~«m÷U-AmaÊ`H$ J«§W
    N.B.:- The words Brāhmana, Āranyaka are a􀀬ached respec􀀔vely to
    the books/Granthas men􀀔oned in the columns.
    213
    ANNEXURE-2
    Upanishads – Veda affilia􀀙on
    Cn{ZfX-doXg§~§Y
    c`
    Rig Veda
    (_x osn)
    ŚuklaYajur Veda
    (‘kqDy ;tqjosn )
    Krishna Yajur Ved a
    (Ñ”.k ;tjq osn )
    Sāma V eda
    (lk eo sn )
    Atharva Veda
    (vFkoZosn )
    Aitreya Ërj;s Ādhyātma vkè;kRe Akshi vf{k Aruni v#f.k Annapurnā vUui.q kkZ
    Ātmabodha vkRecks/k Bhikshu fHk{kq Amrita Nāda ve`rukn Cchandogya NanksX; Atharvaśikhā vFkoZf’k[k
    Akshamālik v{kekfyd Advaiyātarak v};S krjd Amritabindu ver` fcanq Avyakta vO;Dr Atharvaśirā vFkoZf’kjk
    Bhāvricha Hkkfozp Brihadāranyakā gn~kj.;dk Avadhūta vo/kwr Darśana n’kZu Ātmā vkRek
    Mudgala eqn~xy Īśāvāsya Ã’kkokL; BramhaVidyā czãfo|k Jābāli tkckfy Bhasma HkLe
    Kausītaki dkSlhrfd Hamsa gal Brahma czã Jābālādarśana tkckykn’kZu Bhāvanā Hkkouk
    Nāda ukn Jābālā tkckyk Dakshinamūrti nf{k.kewfrZ Kena dsu Brihad jābālā c`gn~tkckyk
    Saubhāgyalak
    shmi lkSHkkX;yf{e Mantrikā eaf=dk Ekākshar ,dk{kj Mahat
    sanyāsa egrlU;kl Dattātreya nRrk=s;
    Nirvān a fuo k.Z k Mandalbrāhma n eaMyczkã .k Dhyānabin du è;k ufcanq Ku ndikā dafq Mdk Devi nsfo
    214
    Rig Veda
    _x osn
    ŚuklaYajur Veda
    (‘kqDy ;tqjosn )
    Krishna Yajur Ved a
    Ñ”.k ;tjq osn
    Sāma V eda
    lk eo sn )
    Atharva Veda
    ( ) ( ) ( (vFkoZosn )
    Tripurā f=ijq k Mukti kā eqfDrdk Garb ha xHkZ Maitr eyi eS=f; G anapati x.kifr
    Śounaka ‘kkuS d Nirāla mba fujky Ec Kaiv alya d oS Y; Maitrā yani eS=k;f.k Garuda x#M
    Painga lã iSaxyk Kālāgnirudra dkykfXu#æ Rudrāksha
    -Jābā lā #æk{ktk ckyk Go-pālā tapan iya Xkis kyrkiuh;
    Paramahamsa ijegal Kālisantaran dkfylarju Sāv itri lkfof= Hayagriva g;xhz o
    Satyāyani lR;k;fu Kar a d j Vajraśuchik ā ot’z kfq pdk K rishna Ñ”.k
    Subālā lqckyk Kathā dFkk
    Vāsudeva o klqnso Mahānārāya na egkukjk; .k
    Tārāsara rkjklj Kshurikā {kqfjd k Chūdāman i p wMkef.k Mahā vākya egk okD;
    Trishkhibrāh
    man
    f =f”dczkã.k Nārāyan a ukjk; .k Ma ndūkya eaMwD;
    Turiyātita rfq j;kfrr Panchabrāhma iapczkã.k Ma ndūka eaMwd
    Yājnavālkya ;kKokYD; Prānagnihotra çk.kfXugks= -Nārada
    pari vrajaka ukjnifjo ztd
    Upanishad(Ve
    da not known) Rudrāhri daya # æân; – Narasimha
    tapaniya ujfl agrifu;
    215
    Rig Veda
    _x osn
    ŚuklaYajur Veda
    (‘kqDy ;tqjosn )
    Krishna Yajur Veda
    Ñ”.k ;tjq osn
    Sāma V eda
    lke o sn )
    Atharva Veda
    ( ) ( ) ( (vFkoZosn )
    Maha Sarasvatirahasy
    a ljLofrjgL; Para-Br ahma ijcãz
    Yajnopavita Sarav asar l jolj Paramāhamsapa
    rivrajaka Ikjegalifjokz td
    Rudra Sarir ākā lfjj kdk Paśupati i’kqifr
    Linga Skanda Ldan Praśna ç’u
    Visrama Yogakundalī ;k sxdqaMyh Rāma-rahasya jkejgL;
    Vajrapanjara Śukra-rahasya ’kØq jgL; Rāmapūrvatapaniya
    jkeiwoZrifu;
    Varcha opZ Rāma-uttaratapaniy
    a jkemRrjrifu;
    Śwetāśvar ’osrk’oj Śāndilya ’kkafMY;
    Taitterīya rSrjh; Sarbha lHkZ
    Yogaśikhā ; ksxf’k[kk S ītā lhrk
    Tejobindu r stkfs canq Sūry a lw;Z
    Varāha ojkg Tripur-tapaniya f=iqjrifu;
    Yogatatva ;ksxrRo Lāngūl a ykaxwy
    216

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